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Full text of "The port of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, including Camden, N.J., Chester, Pa., Wilmington, Del."

AND 
UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD 



PORT SERIES No. 4 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA 
PENNSYLVANIA 

INCLUDING 

CAMDEN, N. J., CHESTER, PA. 
WILMINGTON, DEL. 



Prepared by the 

BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS 
WAR DEPARTMENT 

In cooperation with the 

BUREAU OF RESEARCH 

UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD 




WASHINGTON 



MOSAIC 

COMPOSED OF 

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS 

PHILADELPHIA. PA 




WAR DEPARTMENT 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 

AND 

UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD 



PORT SERIES No. 4 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA 
PENNSYLVANIA 

INCLUDING 

CAMDEN, N. J., CHESTER, PA. 
WILMINGTON, DEL. 



Prepared by the 

BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS 

WAR DEPARTMENT 

In cooperation with the 

BUREAU OF RESEARCH 

UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNH4ENT PRINTING OFHCE 

1922 



.PS 



The following numbers of the port series have already been published and may- 
be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D. C, at the prices indicated: 

Price. 

No. 1. Portland, Maine $0, 25 

No. 2. Boston, Mass 75 

No. 3. Mobile, Ala., and Pensacola, Fla In press 

No. 4. Philadelphia, Pa 75 

(n) 



CONTENTS. 



Port and harbor conditions 1 

General description 1 

Tides 2 

Tidal currents 2 

Anchorages 2 

Weather conditions 4 

Health conditions 5 

Bridges 5 

Harbor improvements by the United States 6 

Harbor Improvement by the State of Pennsylvania and City of Philadel- 
phia 1 7 

Terminal improvements 7 

Ownership of water front 8 

Port customs and regulations 9 

Federal acts and regulations 9 

Local regulations 20 

Port administration 24 

Port services and charges 25 

Fire protection 25 

Pilotage 26 

Dockage 27 

Wharfage 28 

Towage 29 

Lighterage 31 

Storage 32 

Loading and discharging veesels 32 

Labor 41 

Miscellaneous charges 48 

Fuel and supplies 50 

Electric current 50 

Water supply 50 

Ballast 51 

Provisions 51 

Oil bunkering 51 

Coal bunkering 56 

Port and harbor facilities 61 

Piers, wharves, and docks 61 

Grain elevators 242 

Storage warehouses 243 

Bulk freight storage 244 

Dry docks and marine railways 245 

Marine repair plants 256 

Floating equipment 257 

Wrecking and salvage facilities 268 

Communications 269 

Railroads 269 

Facilities for interchange between rail and water 270 

ni 



IV CONTENTS. 

Communications — Continued. Page. 

Switching 271 

Car demurrage 274 

Car storage yards 274 

Car floatage and lighterage 276 

Dockage 278 

Handling 278 

Storage 279 

Grain elevation, storage, etc 282 

Cartage or drayage 284 

Absorptions of terminal charges 285 

Transit privileges 287 

Miscellaneous charges and allowances 290 

Steamship lines 292 

Telephone and telegraph lines 304 

Commercial Radio Stations 304 

Naval radio stations 304 

Signal stations of Philadelphia Maritime Exchange 304 

The freight rate situation 306 

Commerce of Philadelphia, Pa 325 

The territory tributary to Philadelphia, Pa 343 

Local territory served 343 

Interior territory served 343 

Subports 351 

Camden, N.J 351 

Chester, Pa 353 

Wilmington, Del 354 

Conclusions 361 



War Department, 
The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, 

Washington, D. C, June 29, 1922. 
Subject: Report on the port of Philadelphia, Pa. 
To: The Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. 

1 . There is transmitted herewith report by the board on the port of 
Philadelphia, Pa., prepared for this department and the Shipping 
Board as a result of the cooperation prescribed by section 8 of the 
merchant marine act, and in furtherance of the objects entrusted to 
the War Department by section 500 of the transportation act of 1920. 

2. The information contained in this report relative to the terminal 
and shipping facilities of Philadelphia was compiled by the statisti- 
cal division of this office under the supervision of Mr. A. H. Ritter, 
chief statistician of the board, who has devoted his personal attention 
thereto. After compilation, the tables showing the facilities of the 
port were forwarded to the district engineer at Philadelphia, and the 
results checked under his supervision. 

3. Information regarding our ports has not heretofore been avail- 
able in such form as to afford for a selected port all data essential to 
a vessel desiring to call or to enable a shipper to make a comparison 
of the facilities, services, and charges at one port with those at another 
for the particular class of business in which he is interested. The 
report includes information regarding the traffic movements through 
the port and the development of foreign and domestic trade. On 
account of the value of the information to commerce and shipping 
interests, and to the successful operation of the American merchant 
marine, it is recommended that the report be published with the 
accompanying illustrations. 

For the board : 

G. M. Hoffman, 
Resident Member of the Board. 

[First indorsement.] 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, June 30, 1922.— To the Board of 
Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, Washington, D. C, 
Approved : 

H. Taylor, 
Acting Chief of Engineers. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This is No. 4 of a series on the principal ports of the United States 
of which the report on the port of Portland, Me., is No. 1, Boston, 
Mass., No. 2, and Mobile, Ala., and Pensacola, Fla., No. 3. The 
complete series as proposed will comprise some 75 ports in about 25 
volumes, prepared to meet the needs of the War Department in its 
development of harbors and its encouragement of port facilities, of 
the Shipping Board in its promotion of an American merchant marine, 
and of commercial and shipping interests in the upbuilding of their 
business. 

The War Department is required by law to assist the various 
ports in the design and construction of modern port terminals of such 
character as to handle the particular business of the port in the most 
expeditious and economical manner. The United States Shipping 
Board in its encouragement of an American-owned merchant marine 
can afford to overlook no detail which will contribute to the economy 
of ship operation, and the curtailment of the time spent by vessels 
in port is an important item in ship economics. Before they can 
properly function in the encouragement of ports and ships, both the 
War Department and the Shipping Board must have the facts, with- 
out which the shipping business can not be successfully conducted, 
nor the port terminal correctly planned and economically operated. 

Before establishing shipping agencies, the manufacturer must 
consider every factor influencing the prompt and economical move- 
ment of his products. Traffic does not always follow the shortest 
route, or that having the lowest line-haul rate, but it will usually 
be found that there are sound reasons for this seeming disregard 
of economy. Frequently the principal of these reasons is to be found 
at the port through which the traffic must pass. In order to attract 
business a port must first provide the facilities essential for handling 
the particular commodities which it is likely to be offered, and this 
requires a detailed study of production and consumption within the 
territory naturally tributary to the port, and the provision of equip- 
ment especially designed to meet the several requirements of this 
traffic. The ships calling, or likely to call, at the port must be 
studied in the endeavor to provide the facilities and render the service 
which will permit their most rapid turn around. The railroad situa- 
tion is frequently a controlling element in port success. There 
should be ample trackage serving the terminal or terminals, with the 
most economical interchange both between the several railroads enter- 
ing the port and between these railroads and the ship. Not only 
should the physical characteristics of the terminal with regard to 
the coordination between railroad and ship be examined, but the 
railroad rates should be scrutinized, as in various instances a commen- 
surate utilization of a port has been rendered impracticable by 
unfavorable rate conditions. 



VIII INTRODUCTION. 

The absence of any one essential may prevent what should be an 
economical route or port from securing its tributary business. The 
trouble may be the lack of adequate terminals, the absence or inac- 
cessibility of storage facilities, the imposition of excessive switching 
or wharfage charges, the absence of repair or docking facilities, the 
lack of well-balanced cargoes and frequent sailings, or other condi- 
tions affecting the movement of goods through the port and the ability 
of vessels to earn a fair revenue. Port coordination and management 
are apt to play a considerable part in the success or failure of the 
port community to attract and hold business. Where possible, the 
control of all deep-water frontage by the public, as represented by 
the State or municipality, including the ownership and operation of 
a belt-line railroad connecting all rail lines and all terminals, is a 
practical solution of the coordination problem, and is an effective 
remedy for many of the ills that now exist. 

Ports should not have to depend upon the good will or selfish 
interests of either railroads or steamship lines to develop business. 
The railroads may prefer to have the business go elsewhere, and the 
water carriers can scarcely be expected to undertake extensive 
operations designed to bring goods to a particular port. In other 
words, the development of traffic should be regarded as one of the 
permanent functions of the port itself. Among the important 
objects, therefore, which it is hoped to attain from this series of 
reports, is a more general appreciation of the benefits to be derived 
from proper development of our ports. 

In obtaining the necessary information for our purpose, it has been 
deemed of great importance that the statistics be compiled on an 
equal basis for all ports, and a comprehensive questionnaire and 
supporting tables, which were prepared as a basis of port information, 
have been made as nearly as practicable alike for all ports under 
examination. These questionnaires and tables have passed the 
scrutiny of the office of the Chief of Engineers of the War Department, 
the Division of Operations of the Shipping Board, and the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the Department of Commerce. 
The reports will cover the port and harbor facilities for shipping, port 
charges, railroad systems serving the port, local conditions and costs 
of transfer between rail and water, and also the cost of transportation 
between the port and the interior. The important conditions govern- 
ing the movement in traffic through the port will be followed, and 
such additional information presented as may be regarded of value 
to operators of vessels and to producers and manufacturers seeking 
the most economical outlet for their finished products and for the 
importation of raw material. 

The reports will contain extensive information relative to the 
character and amount of commerce handled through the port, its 
origin and destination, the tendencies with relation to the develop- 
ment of traffic, and the adaptability of the physical facilities to meet 
the requirements of business which the port should serve. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

Philadelphia, Pa., is located at the junction of the Delaware and 
the Schuylkill Rivers. It is 101.2 miles by water from the Atlantic 
Ocean and 30.5 miles below Trenton, N. J., the present head of com 
mercial navigation on the Delaware River. Camden, N. J., an im- 
portant manufacturing city, is on the eastern shore of the Delaware, 
directly opposite Philadelphia. Chester, Pa., Marcus Hook, Pa., 
and Wilmington, Del., are located on the right or west bank, 12.5, 
17, and 24.7 miles respectively below Philadelphia. 

The Delaware River flows in a general southerly direction, forming 
the boundary line between the States of New York and New Jersey 
on the east, and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the west. The 
Schuylkill River, which flows through the city of Philadelphia and 
empties into the Delaware River at the southerly limit of the city and 
at the western end of League Island, is an important part of the port 
for certain classes of business, but the principal shipping activities 
are concentrated on the Delaware. 

The harbor of Philadelphia embraces the Delaware River from 
Pennsylvania Railroad bridge in the upper part of the city to the 
mouth of the Schuylkill River, a distance of 12.5 shore miles, and 
the Schuylkill River from its mouth to Fairmount Dam, a distance of 
8.6 miles. The main activities of the port are centered along about 
6 miles of water front, extending from Greenwich Point, about 3 
miles south of Market Street, to Allegheny Avenue, Port Richmond. 

The Port of Philadelphia officially includes the Delaware River 
from Marcus Hook to Trenton. Included in the port besides Phila- 
delphia are Camden and Gloucester City, N. J., opposite Philadelphia; 
Marcus Hook and Chester, Pa., below Philadelphia; BurUngton, N. J., 
and Bristol, Pa., and Trenton, N. J., above Philadelphia. The 
approach to the port is by way of the Delaware River and Bay. 

Harbor of Refuge, Delaware Bay.— Delaware Bay harbor of 
refuge is at the lower end of the Delaware River, a few miles from the 
Atlantic Ocean, on the Delaware side of the bay. The harbor proper 
is protected by Delaware Breakwater, which has a top length of 
7,950 feet. Its location, convenient to the shipping lanes, makes it 



2 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

valuable as a haven of refuge and port of call for North Atlantic 
coast shipping. Many vessels are customarily sent to this harbor 
of refuge for orders. 

TroEs. 

The Delaware River is tidal to Trenton, N. J., the mean tidal range 
being 4.4 feet at the Delaware capes, 6 feet at Chester, Pa., 5.3 feet at 
Philadelphia, Pa, and 4.2 feet at Trenton, N. J. The extreme range 
witliin the harbor varies from about 3 feet below to about 10 feet 
above mean low water. This is occasioned under the influence of 
heavy and long-continued winds. 

The head of navigation for the Schuylkill River is at the Fairmount 
Dam, in the city of Philadelphia, 8.6 miles above the mouth of the 
river. The river is tidal to the dam, the mean tidal range being 5.1 
feet. 

TIDAL CURRENTS. 

Tidal currents never exceed 3 miles per hour and they rarely 
impede navigation. 

ANCHORAGES. 

Delaware Breakwater is the name generally applied to the entire 
anchorage in the vicinity of the Delaware capes, including the inner 
anchorage (Breakwater Harbor) and the outer anchorage (Harbor of 
Refuge) . These harbors are used extensively by all classes of vessels. 

Breakwater Harbor is on the west side of Cape Plenlopen, southward 
of the river breakwater. It has an anchorage area of about 237 acres 
and depths from 13 to 30 feet. 

Harbor of Refuge, lymg 1 to 2 miles N. NW. of Cape Henlopen, is 
formed by a breakwater extending 1\ miles S.SE. from the southeast 
end of Shears. Its anchorage area is approximately 552 acres and 
its depths vary from 24 to 36 feet. 

The harbor of Philadelphia has a sheltered anchorage area of 797 
acres, as follows: 

Marcus Hook anchorage is on the southeast side of Marcus Hook 
range, between Marcus Hook and the lower end of Raccoon Island. 
This anchorage has an area of 225 acres, and the depths vary from 15 
to 40 feet. 

Fort Mifflin anchorage extends from the lower end of Fort Mifflin 
to a point south of the prolongation of the Horseshoe lower range, 
and lies westward of the Schuylkill River range and Fort Mifflin bar 
range. It has an area of 63 acres, with depths ranging from 18 to 
30 feet. 

League Island anchorage is east of the mouth of the Schuylkill River 
and north of the channel marked by the Lower Horse Shoe White 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 3 

Range Lights, and extends to a point opposite Broad Street (middle 
of League Island). The anchorage area comprises 77 acres, 22 to 34 
feet deep. 

Greenwich Point anchorage is east of Unes drawn between three 
anchorage buoys located opposite (1) the lower coal pier at Greenwich 
Point to mark lower hmit of anchorage, (2) prolongation of Porter 
Street and about midway of anchorage, and (3) Dickinson Street to 
mark the upper Umit of anchorage. The anchorage has an area 
of 232 acres, with depths varying from 15 to 40 feet. 

Port Richmond anchorage is east of the main ship channel, between 
the prolongation of Unes drawn from the lower and upper ends of 
Petty Island, as marked by two anchorage buoys placed (1) off the 
lower end of Petty Island, and (2) off Petty Island opposite Pier 
G, Port Richmond, about midway of the anchorage. The anchorage 
covers 200 acres with depths of 12 feet to 18 feet, and extends from 
the head of Petty Island to a point 900 yards below buoy No. 1 and 
northward of Cooper Point. 

Anchorage for explosives, — Vessels carrying gunpowder or 
other explosives may anchor only as foUows: 

Anchorage G ( Thompsons Point). — ^To the eastward of a line running 
180° from the western end of Tinicum Island; to the westward of a 
line running 0° from the mouth of Crab Creek, N. J., exclusive of the 
main ship channel. 

Anchorage H (Deep Water Point). — ^To the southward of a line 
running from Pigeon Point, in New Castle County, Del., 90° to the 
New Jersey shore; to the northward of a line ininning from Delaware 
Street Wharf, New Castle, 90° to the New Jersey shore, exclusive of 
the main ship channel. 

Vessels carrying gunpowder or other low explosives, and not more 
than twenty (20) tons of high explosives in bulk, may use any por- 
tion of this designated anchorage. Vessels carrying high explosives 
in bulk, in quantities greater than twenty (20) tons, must use that 
portion of this anchorage area lying south of a line running 270° from 
the mouth of Salem Gateway, N. J., to the Delaware shore. 

Anchorages G and H are reserved for the special use of vessels car- 
rying explosives, and are not to be used by vessels carrying other 
classes of freight, except in cases of emergency. 

Vessels carrying high explosives in bulk shall not anchor closer than 
four hundred (400) yards to one another, and no vessels carrying 
explosives of any kind shall anchor within five hundred (500) feet of 
any other vessels carrying explosives of any kind, but this provision 
is not intended to prevent barges, Ughters, etc., from tying up along- 
side of ships for the transfer of cargoes. 

Seagomg vessels carrying high explosives in bulk shall not occupy 
these anchorages for a period of time longer than is necessar\'^ to re- 



4 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

ceive or discharge such cargoes, except by special permit from the 
captain of the port. 

Vessels may unload explosives, in the discretion of the captain of 
the port, at Old Point House Wharf, but a permit must be obtained 
from that officer prior to any vessels proceedmg to that wharf with 
explosives on board. For additional information relative to the an- 
choring of vessels see local regulations. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS. 

Open season for navigation. — The channels of this harbor are 
navigable throughout the year. 

Prevailing winds. — ^The prevailing winds are northwest from 
October to April and southwest from May to September. They are, 
however, subject to many variations at all seasons. 

Ice. — ^Ice rarely interferes with navigation along the Atlantic 
coast, but in severe winter may form an obstacle to navigation in the 
bay and river. In ordinary winters there is usually sufficient ice in 
the bay and river to make it necessary for saiUng vessels to use care. 
This ice has been known to form early in December between Chester 
and Philadelphia, but the heavier ice does not usually begin to run 
before January. The tidal currents keep the ice in motion except 
where it packs in the narrower parts of the river, when it often forms 
an obstruction that requires the service of steam and ice boats, of 
which there are a number at Philadelphia. After the first of March ice 
is rarely encountered. 

Fogs. — ^Fogs are most frequent along this part of the Atlantic 
coast during the months of March and April, but may be met at other 
times during the year. Easterly winds bring them and westerly and 
northerly winds clear them away. In the late fall dense fogs are 
liable to occur, and may last two or three days. It should be noted, 
however, that fogs are less prevalent along this part of the Atlantic 
coast than they are farther north. 

The following table shows the average number of hours per month 
from a record of about five years that fog signals were operated in the 
harbor of Philadelphia. 

Hours of operation of fog signals at Fort Mifflin. 



Janiiary 48 

February 33 

March 48 

April 16 

May 10 

June 9 

July 11 



August. .1 12 

September 46 

October. 24 

November 42 

December 44 

Total 343 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 5 

Precipitation. — There is no rainy season. The mean annual 
precipitation covering a period of 35 years is 41.17 inches. 

Temperature. — ^The mean maximum annual temperature cover- 
ing a period of 35 years is 61.9°, while the mean minimum tempera- 
ture for the same period is 46.4°. 

The following information has been furnished by the Weather 
Bureau, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Meteorological data. 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Annual. 


Mean maximum temperature tor 35 years, degrees Fahrenbelt. 


39.4 


40.3 


48.3 


60.2 


71.7 


80.3 


84.8 


82.1 


76.2 


64.6 


52.4 


42.2 


61.9 


Mean minimum temperature for 36 years, degrees Fahrenheit. 


25.7 


26.2 


32.9 


42.8 


53.5 


62.8 


69.1 


66. 5 60. 4 


49.0 


38.5 


29.2 


46.4 


Maximum wind velocities and direction for 60 years. 


60 

NE. 


48 

NW. 


60 

NW. 


50 
W. 


60 

NW. 


54 

NW. 


53 

N. 


55 

NE. 


NW. 


75 
SE. 


60 
E. 


63 

SE. 


75 
SE. 


Prevailing direction of wind for 20 years. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


sw. 


sw. 


SW. 


SW. SW. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


NW. 


Mean precipitation (Inches) for 36 years. 


3.41 


3.38 


3.45 


2.91 


3.20 


3.30 


4.33 


4.61 


3.38 


3.10 


3.06 


3.04 


41.17 



HEALTH CONDITIONS. 

The general health conditions at Philadelphia are good. 



Delaware River. — No bridges cross the main channel of the Dela- 
ware River, with the exception of the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge 
which crosses the river 1 mile above Petty Island. The bridge has 
a center-pier draw, each opening being 120 feet wide with a headroom 
of 50 feet at high water, under either the draw when closed or the fixed 
spans. Work has been commenced on the construction of a bridge 
connecting Philadelphia and Camden, at Pier No. 11, north, requiring 
the removal of part of this pier. 



6 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Schuylkill River. — Seven draw bridges cross the Schuylkill 
River. These bridges, beginning at the mouth, are as follows : 



Bridges. 



Nautical 
miles 
above 

mouth. 



Least 
width 
of the 
draw 
openings 
(feet). 



Clear 
height 
above 

high 
water 
(feet). 



Penrose Ferry 

Passyunk Avenue. 

B.&O.R.R 

Greys Ferry 

Greys Ferry 

Pennsylvania R. R 
South Street 



Highway 
Highway 
Radroad . 
Railroad . 
Highway 
Railroad . 
Highway 



18 

33 

18.5 

22.8 

22 

25.5 

30.7 



Walnut Street bridge, 6.5 miles above the mouth, and the bridges 
above as far as Fairmount Dam, are fixed and have sufficient head- 
room for the passage of small tug boats and barges. The least 
headroom at high water is 21 feet. 

Bridge regulations. — The regulations prescribed for Penrose 
Ferry bridge require that it shall be open at all times during the day 
or night to all vessels that can not pass underneath it, if no person 
or vehicle passing over the bridge is then in the way. The signal is 
three blasts of a whistle or horn, to be answered from the bridge by 
three blasts if the bridge can be opened immediately or two blasts 
if the bridge can not be opened immediately. The draw need not 
be opened for the passage of a tug or other craft equipped with a 
smokestack which can be lowered so as to permit passage under the 
closed draw. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE UNITED STATES. 

The Delaware River, between Philadelphia and the sea, has been 
under improvement since 1836. The early works Avere mainly of the 
nature of ice piers, etc. The existing project, authorized by the 
river and harbor act of June 25, 1910, provides for a channel 35 feet 
deep at mean low water from Allegheny Avenue, Philadelphia, to 
the sea, with a minimum width of 800 feet, widened at the bends 
and through Philadelphia Harbor to 1,000 feet. Work under this 
project is now in progress. Of the 63 miles of channel covered by 
the improvement an aggregate length of approximately 46 miles 
extending from a point opposite Christian Street, Philadelphia, to a 
httle below Reedy Island (including sections with a natural depth of 
35 feet or more) had been completed to full project dimensions on 
June 30, 1921, except for a few small areas of ledge rock near Chester, 
Pa., a small area on the outside of the bend opposite Chester not yet 
dredged to full project width, and a length of about 3 miles opposite 
Wilmington, Del., where dredging has been deferred pending the 
completion of the Edgemoor bulkhead to form a depositing basin. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 7 

In addition, a length of 2,000 feet opposite Port Richmond, in the 
upper part of Philadelphia Harbor, had been dredged to full dimen- 
sions, and a section 2,000 feet long, one-half mile below this, includ- 
ing Mameluke Rock, had been drilled, blasted, and dredged, giving 
a clear channel of approximately full depth and 300 feet wide through 
this section. The western half of the channel for a length of 5,000 
feet near the upper end of Liston range had been dredged to project 
depth, and dredging to complete the channel to full width in this 
section and the section immediately below was in progress. 

The Schuylkill River has been improved under previous proj- 
ects from its mouth to the Chestnut Street bridge, a distance of 7.5 
miles. The present project contemplates improvement only to 
Cleveland Avenue, 6.5 miles above the mouth. The project provides 
for a depth of 35 feet at mean low water and a width of 400 feet from 
the Delaware River to Girard Point, a depth of 30 feet and a width 
of 400 feet to Twenty-ninth Street, a depth of 30 feet and a width 
of 300 feet to Passyunk Avenue, a depth of 26 feet and a width of 
200 feet to Gibson's Point, and a depth of 22 feet and a width of 200 
feet thence to Cleveland Avenue. The controlling depths are 30 
feet to Girard Point, 26 feet to Passyunk Avenue, and 20 to 22 
feet to the upper limits of the improvement. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA AND 
CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. 

The State of Pennsylvania and the city of Philadelphia have spent 
over $1,500,000 for the removal of dredged material and ledge rock 
from the channel. 

The city of Philadelphia proposes to remove the shop,ls in front of 
the Schuylkill River bulkhead to a depth of 30 feet below mean low 
water. The dredged material will be pumped ashore on the flats 
back of the bulkhead. The Schuylkill River bulkhead extends in 
front of city property on the west side of the Schuylldll River below 
Penrose Ferry bridge. One purpose of the improvements is to 
make available for industrial developments additional areas with 
deep water frontage. 

TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Improvements completed. —The following important improve- 
ments have been completed by the city of Philadelphia: Piers Nos. 
9 and 19 north, and 16, 30, 38, 40, and 78 south. The United 
States Government has also completed a terminal known as Pier 98 
south for use of the Army Quartermaster Department. Information 
regarding these piers will be found under the heading "Piers, 
Wharves, and Docks." 



8 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The following terminal improvements are under construction by 
the Department of "V^Tiarves, Docks, and Ferries: 

Girard Piers, Nos. 3 and 5 north vjJiarves. — These piers are to re- 
place the present piers Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and will be 185 feet wide 
by 550 feet long, with a dock or waterway 215 feet in width between 
Piers Nos. 3 and 5, and a dock of the same width between Piers Nos. 
5 and 9, the next pier to the north. The substructure of these piers 
is the "fill on platform" type, or timber pile and timber deck to 
mean low water, and a concrete retaining wall with earth fill to the 
level of the main pier deck. The superstructure is to be a two-story 
steel and concrete shed of modern construction throughout. Bulk- 
head sheds 32 feet wide and one story high connect Piers Nos. 3 and 
5 with the ferry house on the south and Pier No. 9 on the north. 
Including the bulkhead sheds, each pier will have a superficial main 
deck area of over 105,000 square feet and a second deck area of 
90,000 square feet. The piers will be equipped with modern cargo- 
handling apparatus and will have double tracks leading from the 
Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad to the end of each pier. These 
tracks will be depressed. The main deck is designed for a load of 
600 pounds per square foot, and the second for 300 pounds per square 
foot. The docks will be dredged to a depth of 35 feet below mean 
low water. 

Pier No. 4, south wharves (Chestnut Street Pier). — This pier is 80 
feet wide by 535 feet long. The substructure is of the "fill on plat- 
form" type. The superstructure is a double deck steel and concrete 
building. The lower deck is equipped for the accommodation of 
river steamers, and the upper deck for the offices of the Department 
of Wharves, Docks, and Ferries of the City of Philadelphia. 

Piers Nos. 82 and 84, south wharves. — These piers belong to a group 
known as the Moyamensing Piers, and are located near the foot of 
Wolf and Porter Streets. Only the substructures have been com- 
pleted. They are each 300 feet wide by 900 feet long. The sub- 
structure is of the "solid fill" type and the superstructure will be 
two-story steel and concrete. Each pier will have three depressed 
railway tracks in the middle, and Pier No. 82 will have, in addition 
to the middle tracks, a surface track along each apron outside the 
shed. A bulkhead shed 38 feet in width will extend for a distance 
of 168 feet north of Pier No. 82, across the head of the intermediate 
dock, 300 feet wide, and to approximately 267 feet south of Pier 
No. 84 

OWNERSHIP OF WATER FRONT. 

The city of Philadelphia has a navigable water front of about 37 
miles, 20 of which are on the Delaware River and 17 on both banks 
of the Schuylkill River. About half of this frontage is improved, 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 9 

the improvements consisting of some 267 wharves, piers, docks, etc., 
of all sizes and types for the accommodation of all classes of vessels 
and trafBc. The foUowing shows the distribution of ownership of 
the water front : 

Per cent. 

City of Philadelphia 20 

United States Government 18 

Philadelphia & Reading Railway 9i 

Pennsylvania Railroad 6 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 6 

Lehigh Valley Railroad i 

Private 40 

100 

The 17 miles of river frontage on the Schuylkill River is mostly 
divided in small parcels owned by private parties. 

PORT CUSTOMS AND REGULATIONS. 

FEDERAL ACTS AND REGULATIONS. 

General regulations. — Vessels may enter the harbor and anchor 
at any time. As a general practice vessels are visited for official 
inspection while in stream, but may be boarded in stream or at 
berth. Vessels may clear between the hours of 9 a. m. and 4.30 p. m., 
or by special arrangement with the customs officials. Clearances are 
effected by agents and are granted by the Marine Department, Cus- 
toms Service. 

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. 

Quarantine. — ^There are national quarantine stations at Delaware 
Breakwater and Reedy Island, and a State quarantine station at 
Marcus Hook. At the Marcus Hook station vessels are boarded by 
both national and State quarantine officers in order to avoid delay, 
and all vessels subject to inspection are required to stop there until 
given pratique. Vessels will be inspected, if desired, by the national 
quarantine officer at Delaware Breakwater. Vessels with sickness 
on board should anchor in harbor of refuge until inspected. 

Hospitals. — ^The quarantine hospital, which is the United States 
Marine and PubUc Health Hospital, is located at Marcus Hook, Pa. 
Detention stations are located at Reedy Island, Del., and Lewes, Del. 
Philadelphia is well supplied with public and private hospitals. 

The following is a digest of the regulations of the United States 
Public Health Service. 

The exclusion from the United States of the quarantinable diseases of cholera, 
plague, yellow fever, typhus fever, small pox, leprosy, and anthrax is effected prima- 
rily through the inspection abroad, by American consular or medical officers, of ves- 
2497°— 23 2 



10 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

sele, their crews, passengers, and oargoes, and through their inspection, detention and 
treatment in this country by officers of quarantine stations which are established at 
or near the principal ports and provided with adequate equipment and personnel 
effectively to treat such vessels and contents when infected or suspected of being 
infected with quarantinable diseases. 

With the exception of vessels from certain Canadian, Mexican, and Cuban ports and 
certain United States naval vessels, all vessels arriving at American ports from abroad 
must, before entering, present for examination to quarantine officers stationed there: 

1. Bills of health in duplicate issued to them at ports of departure by American 
consiilar or medical officers whose authority so to act is conditioned upon the full 
observance by vessels concerned of American quarantine requirements, including 
inspection, applicable abroad to vessels, contents and full personnel. (See Form 
No. 1937.) 

2. Supplemental bills of health similarly issued at ports of call en route. (See Form 
No. 1938.) 

3. Passenger and/or crew list. (Passenger list. Form Nos. 628, 630, and 500; crew 
list, 860.) 

4. Clinical records covering all cases of illness, births and deaths at sea maintained 
by ships' physicians. (See Form No. 542.) 

5. Cargo manifests and necessary disinfection certificates relating thereto issued by 
the American examining officers abroad. (Manifest Form No. 7527.) 

6. Ships^ logs when desired, and during inspection. 

7. Inspection cards issued by American examining officers abroad to such steerage 
passengers as may be given transportation. 

Quarantine inspection at American ports is required of (a) all vessels arriving from 
abroad with the exceptions noted above; (6) all vessels with sickness aboard; and (c) 
vessels from domestic ports where cholera, plague, or yellow fever prevails, or where 
smallpox or typhus fever prevails in epidemic from. Such vessels shall be con- 
sidered to be in quarantine under the necessity of observing full quarantine require- 
ments until released, without or after detention and treatment. Inspection shall be 
made between sunrise and sunset except in cases of vessels in distress or carrjdng 
perishable cargoes and certain regular Une vessels. 

Vessels, with contents and personnel, shall be placed in quarantine for treatment 
if bearing, having borne en route, or considered by quarantine officers as bearing 
quarantinable diseases, or if arriving during certain seasons from ports infected or 
suspected of infection from yellow fever, and shall remain in detention until freed 
from infection, when vessels will be granted free or provisional pratique to enter 
port. (See Form No. 1940.) Passengers and crews may be detained for a longer or 
shorter period than vessels, according to circumstances. Quarantine officers in charge 
of detained vessels are clothed with such full authority and control over them as will 
insure the most effective execution of quarantine measures. 

A departing vessel, foreign bound, must obtain a consular "bill of health" from 
the consul of the foreign country of destination. Such vessels must also obtain from 
an officer of the Public Health Service, or in his absence from the collector of customs, 
a "port sanitary statement" (Form No. 1964), indicating the number of cases of certain 
diseases and the deaths therefrom at the port of departure during the two weeks prior 
to sailing, for presentation to the quarantine officer at the first foreign port of call. 

IMMIGRATION SERVICE. 

The United States immigration station for the port of Philadelphia 
is located at Gloucester, N. J., directly opposite Philadelphia on the 
Delaware River. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 11 

The following is a digest of the regulations of the Immigration 
Service: 

The immigration laws of the United States, while including within their jurisdiction 
persons of every nationality arriving at seaports of this country from abroad, either as 
passengers or as seamen, are designed primarily to regulate the entry into the United 
States of persons of alien nationality — that is, persons who are not bona fide American 
citizens by birth or naturalization, or citizens of American insular possessions. 

These laws specify what class of aliens shall be excluded;' provide for the examina- 
tion of intending immigrants prior to their arrival in this country; forbid any person, 
including masters of vessels, to bring into or land in the United States, by vessel or 
otherwise, either as passengers or as seamen (except under certain specified conditions), 
aliens not lawfully entitled to enter or to reside therein, and require that aliens so 
conveyed shall as soon as possible be returned in the vessels bringing them to the 
country whence they, respectively, came, the cost of their maintenance on land and of 
their return to be borne by those vessels. They pro\'ide that immigration officials 
shall board arriving vessels bearing aliens and either proceed immediately with the 
inspection of such aliens or order their temporary removal for later inspection, all 
expenses of removal and maintenance pending decision as to eligibility to admission 
to be paid by the vessels; and that masters of such vessels shall deliver to boarding 
immigration officers the following documents: 

1. Descriptive list of United States citizens (passengers). Form 630. 

2. Descriptive list of aUen passengers. Form 500. 

3. Descriptive list of Chinese passengers (if any). Form 418. 

4. Descriptive list of aliens in crew, specifying those to be paid off and discharged 
in the port of arrival. Form 680. 

5. Descriptive list of Chinese seamen in crew (if any). Form 424. 

6. Report of ship's surgeon of diseases, injuries, births, and deaths among passengers 
at sea. Form 542. 

The immigration laws further provide: (a) That there shall be paid to the collector 
of customs by the master, agent, owner, or consignee of a vessel arriving at an American 
port a head tax of $8 for, with certain exceptions, every alien passenger and employee 
thereon entering the United States, the immigration officers certifying to the collector 
the number, et cetera, of such aliens; (5) that after the arrival of such a vessel it shall 
be the duty of the owner, agent, consignee, or master thereof to report in writing to the 
principal immigration officer in charge of the port, as soon as discovered, all cases in 
which alien employees have illegally landed from the vessel ; and (c) before the de- 
parture of the vessel, to deliver to such immigration officer — 

1. A list (Form 689) containing the names of all alien employees who were not em- 
ployed thereon at the time of arrival but who will leave port thereon at the time of 
departure, and also the names of those, if any, who have been paid off and discharged, 
and of those, if any, who have deserted or landed. 

2. A full descriptive list (Form No. 628) of all alien passengers and all citizens of the 
United States or its insular possessions leaving this country thereon, indicating par- 
ticularly those passengers of American or alien nationality who intend to reside per- 
manently abroad. 

CUSTOMS DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA. 

The United States customs district of Philadelphia includes all 
that part of the State of Pennsylvania lying east of 79° west longitude, 
aU of the State of Delaware, and all of that part of the State of New 

1 Sec. 3, Act of Feb. 5, 1917. 



12 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Jersey not included in the district of New York, with district head- 
quarters at Philadelphia, in which Philadelphia, Camden and Glou- 
cester City, Somers Point, Thompsons Point, Tuckerton, N. J.; 
Chester, Pa. ; Wilmington, and Lewes, Del. are ports of entry. 

CUSTOMS SERVICE. 

The customhouse is located on Chestnut Street, between Fourth 
and Fifth Streets. It is centrally located between the piers and the 
railroad yards. The customhouse is open from 9 a. m. until 4.30 p. m., 
except on Saturday, when it is open until 12 o'clock noon. The 
working hours of the customs inspectors are from 8 a. m. until 5 p. m., 
unless special permit is granted by the collector of customs for over- 
time work. Customhouse permit to land goods is secured after entry 
at customhouse. Import cargo is handled mainly from ship to pier, 
whence it is delivered by motor trucks or teams (by bonded con- 
tracting teamsters) to bonded warehouse or to ship agent or broker. 
Sometimes cargo is loaded on railroad cars, motor trucks, or lighters, 
and delivered direct to the importer. This work is done by con- 
tracting stevedores. On outward cargo this operation is reversed. 

There are numerous freight-forwarding companies in Philadelphia 
who undertake the care and dispatch of foreign shipments, attending 
to merchandise and all documents required between shipper and con- 
signee either to or from this country. 

Persons handling bonded goods must be licensed by the Govern- 
ment. 

The following is a digest of the more important customs regulations : 

Vessels carrying freight or passengers, or in ballast, inward bound from foreign 
ports come within customs jmisdiction when within four leagues of the coast and 
enter customs control when boarded by customs officers upon their arrival within 
any collection district. 

Masters of such vessels must deliver to boarding officers for inspection the original 
cargo manifest and one copy thereof for each port at which freight is to be unladen; 
if an American vessel, certificates issued by American consular officers abroad covering 
the carriage thereon to the United States of returned destitute American seamen; 
certified copy of the crew list; copies of seamen's customs statement and, if carrying 
passengers, a list thereof shall be submitted for examination if required. 

A boarding officer, after comparison of original manifest and copies, shall certify 
on the former as to their production and on the copies as to their agreement with the 
original and shall transmit a copy to the collector of each district to which cargo is 
consigned. He shall, if the vessel be American, muster such destitute Americans 
as may be on board in order to verify consular certificates relating thereto, shall 
check the crew with the crew list and shall seal or otherwise secure hatches cover- 
ing cargo, and place under seal surplus sea stores. 

The master of a vessel arriving foreign must report its arrival within 24 hours thereof 
at the customhouse; he must, before entry, deposit all foreign mail on board in the 
nearest post office and take a receipt therefor; if the district be a nonnaval office 
district, he must mail one copy of the manifest to the Auditor for the Treasury Depart- 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 13 

ment, Washington; and he must make entry within 48 hours after arrival, exclusive 
of Sundays and holidays. If calling merely for bunker coal, customs entry and 
clearance are not required. 

Upon entry the master must deposit with the collector: (a) certificate of pratique 
issued by quarantine oflBcer upon arrival; (6) original and two copies of cargo manifest; 
(c) duplicate bills of health if vessel arrives from port at which American consular 
or medical officer is stationed; (d) the ship's register and clearance and other papers 
issued to it at last port of departure for the United States, the register, if vessel be 
American, to be retained by collector until clearance is granted; (e) list of sea stores; 
(/) statement of American consular services without fee to vessel on last voyage and 
copies of receipt from consular officers covering fees for services performed ; (gr) receipt 
covering all foreign mail delivered at nearest post office upon arrival; and, if the 
vessel be American, he must state under oath that delivery has been made at the 
proper foreign port of all mail received before last clearance from the United States, 
and also, if the district has no naval office, that he has mailed a copy of the cargo 
manifest to the Auditor for the Treasury Department, Washington. 

If vessels carry steerage passengers, compartments occupied by same will be meas- 
lu-ed by inspectors on arrival. A correct copy of the passenger list will be deposited 
with the collector and a head tax of $8 shall be paid to him by the master or other 
representative of the vessel within 24 hoirrs after the entry thereof for each alien 
on board. 

If the vessel be of foreign registry the master must within 48 hours after arrival 
deposit with the consular officer of the nation to which it belongs, if this practice 
be reciprocal between that nation and the United States, the register or other docu- 
ment in lieu thereof, together with clearance and other papers issued to the vessel 
at the port of departure for the United States; and the certificate of that officer that 
the papers have been so deposited must be delivered to the collector. Such papers 
shall not be returned to the master by that officer until the former exhibits a clearance 
from the collector. 

Entry of the vessel having been made, the necessary permit for its discharge is 
issued by the collector; discharging inspectors are assigned to superintend unloading 
and delivery of cargo and customs guards are posted. Discharging inspectors must 
take possession of specie and valuables in charge of pursers as soon as possible after 
they first board the vessel. 

The legal time allowed for unloading by customs regulations is as follows: Vessels 
of less than 500 tons, 10 working days after entry; of 500 tons and less than 1,000 tons, 
15 working days; of 1,000 tons and less than 1,500 tons, 20 working days; and of 
1,500 tons and upward, 25 working days. If additional discharge time is required, 
an extension not to exceed 15 days will be allowed by the collector; but inspectors' 
compensation for attendance after legal time shall be paid by the vessel. "Working 
days " do not include the day of entry, legal holidays, and stormy days when dis- 
charge would endanger cai'go's safety. Unloading between 6 p. m. of any day and 
7 a. m. of the following day will be allowed only under authority of a permit issued 
by the collector when the nature of the cargo or conditions at the pier will not jeop- 
ardize customs revenue. Similar permits are required for unloading or loading on 
Sundays and holidays. Cargo remaining on board after the expiration of legal time, 
or additional period of 15 days, which is not recorded for transshipment to some other 
district or to some foreign place, must be taken possession of by the collector and 
stored at owner's expense. Ballast of no mercantile value may be unloaded under 
authority of a customs permit. Ballast cargo or coal can not be taken on board 
vessels while discharging except on a lading permit. 

Unless such production is impracticable no merchandise exceeding $100 in value, 
except personal effects accompanying passengers and goods entered for warehouse 
and immediate exportation, is admissible into the United States without the produc- 



14 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

tion, upon entry of a "consular invoice" prepared before shipment, describing the 
goods and specifying the foreign sale price thereof and all charges assessed thereon 
to the point of exportation, and certified by the American consular officer at the place 
of manufacture or exportation, or by designated substitutes. Formal customs entry 
must be made of all importations, whether free or dutiable and regardless of their 
value, and is made principally for the following purposes: (a) consumption; (b) ware- 
house, for storage for three years, if desired, without payment of duty; (c) warehouse 
and immediate exportation; (d) warehouse and transportation; and (e) transportation 
without appraisement. 

The consular invoice and covering bill of lading or express receipt, or bonds pro- 
viding for their production, must be presented upon application for entry, together 
with, when required, a statement by the manufacturer abroad showing cost of pro- 
duction and purchase price of the goods. Entries having been made in writing 
according to prescribed form by the consignee or agent and duties estimated and paid, 
or secured to be paid, necessary delivery permits are issued by the collector. Mer- 
chandise for which no delivery permit has been received within 48 hours after a 
vessel's entry shall be taken possession of by the discharging inspector and stored 
at owner's expense in general orders stores unless an extension of time is granted 
by the collector. The collector will designate at the time of entry at least one package 
of every invoice, and not less than one in every ten packages, except in special 
instances, for examination by the appraisers. All packages entered for consumption 
not specified for examination may be immediately delivered to the importer upon 
his filling a bond covering double the estimated value of the merchandise for the 
return of any packages so delivered within 10 days after the examination packages 
have been appraised. Cargo must not be removed from the pier, however, until 
necessary customs weighing, gauging, et cetera, has been done. 

Delivery may be secured at dock of all free goods and of such goods entered for 
consumption as are not selected for appraisement. Packages entered for consumption 
and selected for appraisement will be delivered to the importer after examination 
if duties paid are found to have been sufficient. Goods selected for examination 
are carted for that purpose to the appraisers stores, except that fragile or bulky articles, 
machinery, inflammable or explosive substances, and textiles requiring analysis 
may be appraised upon the wharf, on the importers' premises, or sent to the nearest 
port where there is a textile analyst, as the case may be. Goods entered for ware- 
house are sent to bonded warehouses, from which delivery may be made upon the 
payment of duties, storage charges, etc. Free goods, unless in packages containing 
dutiable goods, and also perishable goods and explosive or inflammable substances, 
can not be entered for warehouse. Goods entered for transportation without appraise- 
ment are delivered to bonded transportation companies. A special permit author- 
izing the immediate landing and delivery of animals, automobiles, theatrical effects, 
periodicals, tropical fruits, perishable and other articles requiring immediate delivery 
may be issued prior to the arrival of the importing vessel upon application by the 
importer and the deposit with the collector of a sum equal to double the estimated 
duties, the collector gi\dng early notice to the appraiser, who will promptly detail 
an officer to examine and appraise the merchandise. 

Warehouses for the appraisal and storage of bonded merchandise shall be used 
exclusively for that purpose and for the storage of unclaimed goods under Government 
control, and are classified as follows: (a) "Public stores," consisting of warehouses 
owned or leased by the Government for the storage of merchandise undergoing ap- 
praisement and for seized or unclaimed goods, and for other purposes; (6) importers' 
private bonded warehouses used exclusively for storing imported merchandise owned 
and entered for warehouse by the proprietors; (c) bonded warehouses used for the 
general storage of imported goods; (d) bonded yards or sheds used exclusively for 
storing heavy and bulky imported merchandise; (e) bonded bins or parts of buildings 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 15 

or elevators used for storing grain; (/) warehouses for reconditioning articles made 
wholly or partly of imported materials or materials subject to internal revenue tax 
and intended principally for exportation. 

Cartage of merchandise in customs custody is of two kinds, (a) Government cartage, 
which must be done by licensed customhouse cartmen under contract for that pur- 
pose, and (b) importers' cartage which may be done by any licensed customhouse 
cartmen. The cartage of i)ackages designated for examination at the appraisers' 
stores, and taken possession of for other reasons, shall be done by a cartman under 
contract for that purpose at the expense of the importer. Importers and exporters 
shall designate on the entry of bonded merchandise the bonded cartman by whom 
they wish their merchandise to be conveyed. An adequate system of receipts cover- 
ing the transfer of merchandise between docks and bonded warehouses is provided 
by customs regulations. Cartmen will give receipts to the importing vessel for all 
packages of merchandise in bulk delivered to them and shall be held liable under 
their bonds for its prompt delivery and sound condition unless specially relieved of 
responsibility. 

Discharged inspectors will show the disposition of cargo by noting on the mani- 
fest the various entries made therefor and by indicating packages sent to public stores 
and noting all discrepancies between manifest, permits, and merchandise. 

Prior to granting clearance to a vessel foreign bound, the collector must receive 
from the master thereof all manifests, certificates, etc., prescribed by Customs 
Regulations. Shipments for foreign deUvery should not be accepted by such vessels 
unless accompanied by shipper's export declarations (Customs Form 7525) certified 
by the collector. If a complete outward manifest can not be filed before departure, 
or if all export declarations have not been filed, clearance may be granted upon the 
execution of a bond providing that such manifest will be filed not later than the 
next business day after the vessel's departure; that pro forma declarations, in lieu of 
regular export declarations not received, be filed with the complete manifest, and 
that export declarations so covered be filed not later than 15 days after clearance. 

Vessels about to clear from the first port of entry, bearing dutiable merchandise 
consigned to foreign ports, other United States customs districts or both, shall give 
bond securing payment of duty upon merchandise landed in the United States. 
Before a vessel departs with residue cargo for another district the master must obtain 
from the collector a certified copy of the report and manifest filed upon entry, together 
with a landing certificate and a permit to proceed to such other district for discharge. 

The following additional custom requirements must be observed by masters upon 
clearance; if vessels bear goods subject to State inspection the certificate of inspection 
and receipts of payment of legal fees must be produced to the collector if reqiured 
by the State laws. A list of the crew must be deposited with the collector and a 
certified copy thereof obtained from him. Port sanitary statements must be obtained 
from medical officers of the United States Public Health Service or from collectors. 
Vessels of American registry, foreign bound, are required to receive for delivery abroad 
coin, bullion, United States notes, or other securities offered by any representative 
of the United States Government. Mail for foreign delivery shall be received from 
the post office at the port of departure and, as a condition of clearance, the master 
must make oath that he will not convey mail improperly received. Masters of vessels 
clearing foreign ports shall obtain from the collector the clearance certificate and 
from the collector or foreign consular officers stationed at the port the register and 
other shipping papers deposited with them upon entry. 

Customs officers are required to supervise the lading of merchandise outward bound 
on which drawback is payable, or merchandise withdrawn from bonded warehouse 
for exportation or landed for transshipment. 

The customs entry of a vessel coastwise consists of delivering to the collector within 
24 hours after arrival a sworn manifest of cargo and obtaining from him a permit to 



16 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

discharge. On clearance of a vessel coastwise the master will deposit with the col- 
lector verified duplicate manifests of the cargo on board, which the collector will 
certify, returning one copy to the master, with a permit thereon to depart. 

FEDERAL DOCUMENTS. 

The following is a list of documents issued by departments of the 
Federal Government and other documents, which ocean carriers are 
required to have. 

DOCUMENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. 

Papers required for documenting vessel : 

Master carpenter's certificate. 

Certificate of admeasurement. 
Papers required for departure and clearance (for foreign port). 

Certificate of registry, enrollment and license, or license. 

Official log book. 

Shipping articles. 

Forecastle card. 

Crew list. 

Outward foreign manifest. 

Clearance. 

Certificate of inspection. 

Licenses of officers. 

Laws governing the Steamboat-Inspection Service. 

Pilot rules and regulations. 

Rules for lights. 

Other forms required by Steamboat-Inspection Service according to nature of 
vessel and voyage. (See list under Steamboat-Inspection Service). 

Passenger list. 

Statement of master regarding changes in crew prior to departure. 

Port sanitary statement. 

Foreign consul's bill of health. 
The certificate of payment of tonnage tax should be in vessel's files, also the certifi- 
cate of fumigation, if vessel has undergone fumigation. 
Papers required for departure and clearance (coastwise) : 

Certificate of registry, enrollment and license, or license. 

Coastwise manifest with permit thereon to depart. 

Count and list of passengers. 

Crew list, if engaged in whale fishery. 

Shipping articles, if vessel is of 75 tons burden or upward and bound from a port 
on the Atlantic to a port on the Pacific or vice versa. 

Forecastle card, if as above. 

Certificate of inspection. 

Licenses of officers. 

Laws governing the Steamboat-Inspection Service. 

Pilot rules and regulations. 

Rules for lights. 

Other forms required by the Steamboat-Inspection Service according to nature 
of vessel and voyage. (See list under Steamboat-Inspection Service.) 

Certificate of fumigation, if vessel has been fumigated. 

Certificate of inspection of drinking water system. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 11 

Papers required for arrival and entry (from foreign port) : 

Certificate of registry, enrollment and license, or license. 

Official log book (at home port). 

Shipping articles. 

Crew list. 

Inward foreign manifest (four copies). 

Store list (two copies). 

Clearance (from last port). 

List or manifest of aliens in crew. 

Passenger list. 

Report of diseases, deaths, births, and injuries among passengers. 

Seaman's custom statement. 

Master's oath on entry of vessel from foreign port. 

Original bill of health. 

Supplemental bill of health. 

Certificate of discharge from local quarantine, pratique. 

Certificate of fumigation to be shown on demand. 

Certificate of payment of tonnage tax. 
Papers required for arrival and entry (coastwise): 

Certificate of registry enrollment and license, or license. 

Coasting manifest. 

Count and list or passengers. 

Crew list, if engaged in the whale fishery. 

Shipping articles, if vessel is of 75 tons burden or above, and enters a port on 
the Pacific from a port on the Atlantic or vice versa. 

Official log book, if as above. 

Detailed information regarding the source, disposition, and use of 
the above forms will be found in the following table: 



18 



THE PORT or PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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20 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Local Regulations, 
harbor and anchorage regulations. 

[Act of Assembly, State of Pennsylvania, approved June 8, 1907.] 

1. It shall be the duty of the master of every ship or vessel, within 36 hours 
next after the arrival of any ship or vessel at the port of Philadelphia, to make a report 
to the said board of commissioners of navigation of the name of such ship or vessel, her 
draft of water, and where any such ship or vessel shall be outward bound, the master 
of such ship or vessel shall make known to the said board of commissioners of naviga- 
tion her name, and her draft of water at that time; and it shall be the duty of the 
president of the said board of commissioners of navigation to have entered every such 
ship or vessel in a book, to be kept by them for that purpose, without fee or reward; 
and if a master of any ship or vessel shall fail to make such report he shall forfeit and 
pay the sum of $10. 

[Act of Assembly, State of Pennsylvania, approved May 13, 1879.] 

2. It shall be unlawful for any vessel to anchor on the range line of any range lights 
established by the United States Lighthouse Board in this State; and the master of 
any vessel so anchoring shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof before any court of competent jurisdiction shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding $50, one- half the fine in such case to be paid the informer and one-half to 
the State. 

WAR VESSELS AND PLEASURE YACHTS. 

3. War vessels of the United States and of foreign nations, and pleasure yachts, with 
permission of the commissioners of navigation, may anchor in such location as not to 
interfere with the navigation of the river. 

Vessels must not anchor at any place in the channel of the River Schuylkill, nor 
lie at any wharf in that river more than two abreast, without the permission of the 
commissioners of navigation. 

4. All vessels at anchor in the port of Philadelphia shall keep their sails furled 
during the night and regulation riding lights exhibited. 

5. Vessels going into the stream after discharging and expecting to remain more 
than five (5) running days, will be required to report to the commissioners of na\'iga- 
tion for anchorage berth, and will have to moor if directed. 

6. Permits may be granted by the commissioners of na\igation to wrecking plants 
to anchor outside the anchorage limits of the port of Philadelphia for the purpose of 
recovering sunken property, subject to supervision. Such plants must comply with 
the navigation laws in regard to lights, signals, etc., and must, if possible, move in 
ample time to give safe and clear passage to arriving and departing vessels. 

7. If the commissioners of navigation direct the removal of any vessel which lies in 
the harbor of the port of Philadelphia, and the vessel is not promptly moved as directed, 
they may cause the vessel to be moved at the expense of the master or owners thereof, 
and if said master or owners neglect or refuse on demand to pay such an expense, 
the commissioners of navigation may recover the amount in an action of contract. 

8. A vessel under 150 feet register length when at anchor shall carry forward, 
where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding 20 feet above the hull, a white 
light in a lantern constructed so as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, visible 
all around the horizon at a distance of at least 1 mile. 

9. A vessel of 150 feet or upward in register length when at anchor shall carry in 
the forward part of the vessel, at a height of not less than 20 and not exceeding 40 
feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such 
a height that it shall be not less than 15 feet lower than the forward light, another such 
light. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 21 

10. Should any of the prescribed anchorages in the port of Philadelphia become 
congested, vessels may be required to moor and, if necessary, to make fast alongside 
of other vessels already anchored. 

11. Vessels hauled into any wharf or dock, or alongside of other vessels lying at any 
wharf or dock, must be made fast to the shore with proper lines, with sufficient fenders 
between them and the inside vessels, and shall, when so ordered by the commissionera 
of navigation, have their jib booms, booms, yards, davits, and bumpkins, if any, 
rigged in, their lower yards topped, and anchors either a cockbill or at the hawse pipe, 
ae most convenient. 

12. When fasts of vessels extend across a dock so as to obstruct passing vessels, the 
captain or person in charge shall, when so ordered by the commissioners of navigation, 
cause the fasts to be slackened or cast off. 

13. Vessels lying at the ends of piers, so as to obstruct the passage to the adjoining 
docks, must move or slack their lines when necessary to accommodate other vessels 
entering or leaving the docks. 

14. Vessels lying alongside of a wharf, and not taking in or discharging cargo, mxist 
make way for and permit other vessels that want to load or unload cargo to come 
inside next to wharf. 

15. No dock shall be unnecessarily obstructed by a vessel so as to prevent the 
loading or unloading of cargo by another vessel. 

16. Vessels that increase their width by using ballast logs, pontoons, or other devices 
of like nature, must move to accommodate other vessels, when so ordered by the 
commissioners of navigation, and shall pay the expense of moving such other vessels 
that have to be moved to allow the vessel with the above appliances to enter or leave 
dock. 

17. All seagoing vessels at anchor, or when discharging, loading, laying up or being, 
repaired at any wharf in the port of Philadelphia, are required to have and maintain 
a safe and convenient ladder, gangplank, or side steps for the use of persons having 
business on board such vessels. 

18. Steamers or sailing vessels loaded with petroleum, benzine, benzol, or naphtha, 
made fast to any wharf in the city of Philadelphia, and vessels not so loaded, lying 
within 150 feet of such steamers or sailing vessels, so loaded, and made fast to or lying 
within that distance of a wharf where petroleum is kept or stored, are not allowed to 
have aboard any fire or light, lighted cigar or pipe of any kind whatsoever, unless by 
the written permission, duly signed by the owner, lessee, or superintendent of the 
wharf at which the vessel is lying, setting forth particularly the lights and fires that 
may be used and the manner of using them. 

19. Tows of seagoing barges must be bunched above the mouth of the Schuylkill 
River. (Regulation Department of Commerce and Labor, December 7, 1908.) 

20. Vessels lying in berths in the port of Philadelphia in positions where they ex- 
tend beyond the line of the pier do so at their own risk, and may be held responsible 
for any damage that may occur by reason of their projecting into the stream. 

21. Vessels discharging ballast or any loose material must have tarpaulins from the 
ship's rail to the wharf or lighter, as the case may be, to prevent such material finding 
its way into the river or dock. 

22. Vessels anchored in the harbor of the port of Philadelphia requiring the assistance 
of the police of fire boats shall display their national flag, imion down. 

23. The signal for the commissioners of navigation's tender shall be the interna- 
tional code letter "N," set in the rigging or hoisted in a conspicuous place, or three 

short blasts and one long blast ( — — — ) of steam whistle, to be continued 

imtil answered. 



22 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Speed Regulations, 
for vessels navigating the delaware river between bristol and marcus 

HOOK. 

1. Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware River between the 
Point House Wharf and Pier "G," Port Richmond, at a greater rate of speed than 
eight (8) nautical miles an hour, and such vessels shall navigate as far as is practicable 
from the pierhead line. This rule will not apply to river craft when they are pro- 
ceeding at more than three hundred feet (300^) from the pierhead line. 

2. Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware River in front of the 
navy yard, between Red Buoy No. 44 off mouth of Schuylkill River and Red Buoy 
No. 46, off Eagle Point, at a greater rate of speed than twelve (12) nautical miles 
an hour. 

3. Vessels passing craft anchored in the stream between Marcus Hook and Bristol, 
loading, discharging, or bunkering, shall not navigate at a greater rate of speed than 
eight (8) nautical miles an hour. 

4. Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware River off Chester 
or Marcus Hook at a greater rate of speed than twelve (12) nautical miles an hour. 

5. When vessels are moored to the ends of piers at Marcus Hook, lying parallel 
with the river, passing vessels shall not exceed a speed of eight (8) nautical miles 
an hour. 

Penalty. — That every master, officer, or other person or persons having charge of 
any vessel na-vigating the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries who shall 
violate any rule regulating the speed of vessels, made and promulgated by the said 
commissioners, he or they so offending, shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding 
$50 for the first offense, and not less than $75, nor more than $100, for each subsequent 
offense, to be sued for and recovered with costs of suit, by the president of said com- 
missioners, for the use of the Commonwealth, before any magistrate of the city of 
Philadelphia or justice of the peace of the proper coimty. — Made and promulgated 
January 9, 1914, and March 4, 1914. 

Regulation governing twin-screw vessels. — From and after the passage of this regu- 
lation all steamships fitted with twin screws, while occupying berths in the port 
of Philadelphia, shall either display continuously on each quarter a sign, which 
shall be illuminated at night, marked "danger, keep off, this vessel has twin 
scREV/e," or float a spar boom around the stem which shall entirely inclose the space 
occupied by the propellers. — Made and promulgated June 1, 1915. 

[Act of Assembly, State of Pennsylvania, approved June 8, 1907.] 

If any person or persons whosoever, shall, from and after the passage of this act, 
cast or place or leave in position where the same may be washed or drifted into the 
tideway of the river Delaware, or into the river Schuylkill from the lower falls thereof 
to its junction with the river Delaware, any ballast, cinders, ashes, dirt, refuse, or 
any heavy articles whatever, he or they so offending, for every such offense, shall 
forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding $100, to be sued for and recovered, with costs 
of suit, by the president of said commissioners, for the use of the Commonwealth, 
before any magistrate of the city of Philadelphia, or justice of the peace of the proper 
county. 

From and after the passing of this act, it shall be the duty of the president of said 
commissioners, immediately upon information of the sinking of any canal boat, barge, 
or other vessel, in the channelway of the tidewaters of the river Delaware or its navi- 
gable tributaries, or in any of the docks thereof, to give notice to the owner, master, 
or other agent having charge thereof, to raise and remove such obstruction within 
ten days after the date of said notice, under a penalty of $100, to and for the use of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; and, in case of refusal or neglect of the parties 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, P^. 23 

interested, as aforesaid, to raise and remove any such obstruction within the time 
specified in said notice, it shall be the further duty of said president of said com- 
missioners to have it raised and removed, at the expense of the owner, master, or 
agent; and the said canal boat, barge, or other vessel, together with the cargo thereof, 
shall be subject to a lien, in the hands of the said president of said commissioners, 
until the expenses of raising and removing shall be fully paid to him ; and the said 
president of said commissioners is hereby authorized to sell at public auction to the 
highest bidder, for cash, all such property, or so much thereof as is necessary to pay 
all the expenses of raising and removing, together with the penalty aforesaid, and 
the cost of sale; and shall return the surplus, if any, of such sale to such person or 
persons as shall be legally entitled to receive the same. 

The said president of said commissioners, before proceeding to sell such property 
as aforesaid, shall give five days' notice by at least 20 printed handbills, to be posted 
in conspicuous places in the immediate neighborhood of said locality, setting forth 
a full description of said property to be sold, together with the time and place of 
selling the same. Should the sum realized from such sale be insuflS.cient to pay 
all of the expenses of raising and removing, together with the penalty and the expenses 
of said sale, then, and in such case, said president of said commissioners may sue 
for the amount of such deficiency, in the name of and for the benefit of the Common- 
wealth, in any court of the Commonwealth having jurisdiction in similar cases; and 
it shall be the duty of the attorney general of the Commonwealth to institute and 
prosecute such suits, at the request of said commissioners. 

If any person or persons shall refuse or neglect to comply with the directions of 
the president of the commissioners in matters within the jurisdiction of his office, 
or shall knowingly fail to comply with the rules and regulations by the commissioners 
duly made, published, and established, as aforesaid, or if any person or persons, what- 
soever, shall obstruct or prevent the said president of the commissioners in the execu- 
tion of his duties, such person or persons, aforesaid, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and, upon con\dction thereof, shall be sentenced to pay, for each and every offense, 
a fine not exceeding $500. 

GUNPOWDER. 

1. Every captain or master of, or merchant owning, a ship or vessel, bringing therein 
into such part of the port of Philadelphia as lies between the southern boundary of the 
district of Southwark (south side Mifflin Street, Delaware River) and the northeastern 
boundary of the township of Northern Liberties (bed of Canal Street, Delaware River) 
any gunpowder for sale or other purpose, shall, within the space of 48 hoiu-s from the 
arrival and coming to anchor of said ship or vessel, within the limits aforesaid, and be- 
fore such ship or vessel shall be brought to any wharf of the said port, within the said 
limits, deliver, or cause to be delivered, all the gunpowder above 30 pounds weight, 
brought as aforesaid, at the magazine, under the penalty of forfeiting at and after the 
rate of 20 pounds ($100) for every cask of gunpowder so withheld and not delivered as 
aforesaid, together with the whole of such gunpowder, above the said 30 pounds weight, 
if such gunpowder be the property of the offender; and in order that strangers may be 
the better apprised of the tenor of this act, the health officer and his deputies are re- 
quired and enjoined, as soon as they have opportunity, to give information thereof to 
such captain, master, or merchant; and the customhouse and naval officers and their 
deputies are required and enjoined to give such information to the captains or other 
persons coming to their several offices, to make entry or report of their arrival, or of 
their cargoes. 

2. If any gunpowder stored in the magazine be intended for exportation, it shall not 
be delivered on board of vessel intended to export the same while she remains at any 
of the wharves in such part of the port of the city of Philadelphia, but after removal of 
any such gunpowder, for the pxirpose aforesaid, from the said magazine, it shall be 



24 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

immediately delivered into Bome boat or craft, to be used for conveying it on board of 
Buch vessel, and which boat or craft shall be ready to receive and convey the same to 
such vessel, and shall forthwith carry it on board thereof, under penalty of forfeiture 
of such gunpowder, and of the sum of 20 pounds ($100), to be paid by any person so 
offending, and of the further sum of 15 pounds for every hoiu* such boat or craft shall 
remain at any such wharf, after taking or receiving such gunpowder on board ; and such 
gunpowder shall not be imlbaded from any cart, dray or other carriage, on any wharf 
within the said city and the aforesaid adjacent country, until the boat or craft into 
which it is to be delivered for the purpose of conveying it to the vessel intended to 
export the same, shall be ready to receive it, under the penalty of 20 pounds, to be 
forfeited by every person so offending. 

3. All gunpowder brought by land into the said city, or the adjacent country, within 
two miles of the said city, if above 30 pounds weight at one time, shall be immediately 
carried to the magazine, and delivered to the superintendent thereof, or his deputy, 
within the hours hereinafter prescribed for his attendance at the said magazine, under 
the same penalties as if brought by water, and not delivered, as in such case is herein 
directed, at the said magazine. 

4. It shall not be lawful for any person or persons to import or introduce gunpowder 
within the following limits, excepting as hereinafter directed; that is to say, no vessel 
having a greater quantity than five kegs of gunpowder shall be permitted to anchor 
north of the pier next above the Pointhouse, on the river Delaware, in the township 
of Moyamensing and county of Philadelphia. — (Act of Assembly, State of Pennsyl- 
vania, approved March 28, 1787. The act of 16 March, 1847, Sec. 1, P. L. 473, extends 
the acts of 1787 and 1818 to guncotton.) 

DISPLAY OF SIGNALS AT CAPES OF DELAWAKE. — NOTICE TO MASTERS AND PILOTS OF 

VESSELS. 

1. Vessels desirous of being reported when passing in or out of the Capes of the Dela- 
ware must display their signals by day or night in a position where they can be seen 
from the reporting station of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange on the inner Dela- 
ware Breakwater, say about one-half mile inside Overfalls Light Vessel. 

PORT ADMINISTRATION. 

The administration of Philadelphia's water facilities is intrusted to 
two bodies, one a State board and one a municipal department. 
The State board of commissioners of navigation consists of five mem- 
bers, three appointed by the mayor of Philadelphia, and two elected 
by the city councils of Chester and Bristol, Pa. The board has gen- 
eral control over all that portion of the port of Philadelphia which is 
in the State of Pennsylvania. It also licenses and regulates State 
pilots. Within the limits of the city of Philadelphia, it confines its 
activities to that portion of the river beyond pierhead lines, establish- 
ing rules and regulations as to the use of the channel and anchorages, 
speed, lights, etc. That portion of the water front of the city between 
the bulkhead and pierhead lines is under the control of the city de- 
partment of wharves, docks, and ferries, the director of which is 
ex officio president of the board of commissioners of navigation above 
mentioned. This department has direct control of all municipal 
piers and terminals, the city's floating plant, dredging operations, 
etc., and supervisory control over all terminals. The director is 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 25 

nominated and appointed by the mayor by and with the consent of 
the select council, for a term of four years, or during good behavior, 
and is eligible for reappointment. He has extensive administrative 
powers, including in part the appointment of his assistants and the 
fixing of their salaries; making surveys and soundings; establishing 
bulkhead and pierhead lines and distance between piers, subject to 
the regulations of the United States Government; adopting and 
promulgating regulations for the construction, alteration, and repair 
of water terminals,and enforcing these regulations; issuing hcenses 
and permits; fixing wharfage, craneage, and dockage rates, and act- 
ing as purchasing agent for the city in the procurement of water-front 
property, etc. The assistants appointed by him include an assistant 
director, a secretary, not to exceed five dock masters, and as many 
other officers, clerks, and employees as he may deem necessary. 

The collector of the port and surveyor of the port are customs 
authorities. River and harbor improvements by the United States 
are in charge of the District Engineer, U. S. Engineer Office, Wither- 
spoon Building, Philadelphia. 

Administration of wharves and piers.— Regularly established 
lines have a marine superintendent, who has absolute control of the 
pier, subject to the orders of the agent. A watchman acts as rounds- 
man with special police authority. There are also a chief clerk, 
receiving and delivery clerks, timekeeper, baggage master, gear 
keeper, carpenter, janitor, gateman, and in some cases foreman 
stevedores, all of whom have duties connected with the receipt and 
deUvery of cargo or passengers. The railroad companies maintain a 
wharfinger and clerks for similar purposes. 

PORT SERVICES AND CHARGES. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

The water front is protected by city fire department. All covered 
piers and a majority of uncovered piers have water mains installed 
and there are city fire plugs in the near vicinity of all wharves. The 
covered piers have chemical fire extinguishers, fire-alarm systems, 
fire barrels and the newer piers have sprinkler systems. Some private 
piers used in connection with large industries have their own fire 
protection in addition to that furnished by the city. The following 
fire boats are maintained by the city of Philadelphia: Samuel H. 
Ashbridge, Rudolph BlanJcenhurg, Samuel G. King, J. Hampton Moore, 
John E. Reyhurn, William S. StoMey, Edwin S. Stuart. 

The city maintains special high-pressure pumping stations for use 
in case of fires along the water front. 

Information regarding fire protection at the various wharves and 
piers of the port is given in the table showing data relative to piers, 
wharves, docks, etc. 
2497°— 23 3 



26 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

PILOTAGE. 

Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels, with a few exceptions, as 
shown below. 

Vessels subject to pilotage. —Every ship or vessel arriving from 
or bound to any foreign port or place shall be obliged to receive a 
pilot, except American vessels solely laden with coal mined in the 
United States; provided, that a ship or vessel mward bound to any 
port or place on the river Delaware, which is not spoken or offered 
the services of a pilot outside a straight line drawn from Cape May 
Light to Cape Henlopen Light, shall be exempt from the duty of 
taking a pilot, as well as from the duty of paying pilotage, or any 
penalty whatsoever. 

Vessels exempt from pilotage. — ^All ships or vessels employed 
in or licensed for the coasting trade, except such as are under register, 
bound to or from States or Territories of the United States on the 
Pacific Ocean, are exempt from the duty of employing a pilot or 
paying pilotage, or any penalty whatsoever, but any ship or vessel 
voluntarily taking a pilot shall pay the same fees for pilotage as are 
prescribed in case of a vessel bound to or from a foreign port. 

Delaware Breakwater pilotage. — Every ship or vessel bound to 
the Delaware Breakwater for orders shall be obliged to receive a pilot, 
provided she is spoken or a pilot offers his services outside of a 
straight line drawn from Cape Henlopen Light to Cape May Light, 
and every ship or vessel bound to the Delaware Breakwater for 
orders shall pay pilotage fees as follows: A sum equal to half the 
pilotage to the port of Philadelphia, and she shall be obhged to 
receive a pUot and pay the same pilotage fees when outward bound 
from the breakwater, and if such ship or vessel, without discharging 
her pilot, proceed to the port of Philadelphia, or any other port or 
place on the bay or river Delaware, only one fuU pilotage fee shall be 
paid, in addition to the fee for detention; provided, however, that 
the pilot bringing such ship or vessel to the breakwater be there 
discharged, and if the ship or vessel afterwards proceed to Philadel- 
phia or any other port or place on the bay or river Delaware, she 
shall make the usual signal for a pilot and continue to make such 
signal until reaching Brandywine Light, and if spoken by or offered 
the services of a duly licensed Pennsylvania pilot, before reaching 
Brandywine Light, shall be obliged to employ such pilot and pay 
him the regular rates in addition to the fee p aid for bringing her 
into the breakwater, and for detention, if any. 

Detention. — In case a pilot having charge of a vessel and whilst 
conducting said vessel be detained, either by order of the master, 
owner or consignee, or by ice or any other unavoidable circumstance, 
not personal to himself, he shall receive compensation for such 
detention. 



THE PORT OF PHDADELPHIA, PA. 



27 



Either Pennsylvania or Delaware pilots are taken to or from any 
point on Delaware Bay or River, and the fees in either case are the 
same. Both Pennsylvania and Delaware pilots will be found aboard 
one vessel, either a steamer or auxiliary schooner, which will be 
found cruising outside the entrance of the bay. 

Vessels waiting in Delaware Breakwater for orders usually retain 
the pilot and pay him the detention fee. 

The rates for pilotage into and out of Philadelphia Harbor are as 
follows : 



Feet- 


Inward. 


Outward. 


Feet- 
dralt. 


Inward. 


Outward. 


draft. 


No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


8 

10 

12 

14 

16 

18 


$35.20 
44.00 
52.80 
77.00 
88.00 
99.00 


$32 
40 
48 
70 
80 
90 


$28.80 
36.00 
43.20 
63.00 
72.00 
81.00 


$32 
40 
48 
70 
80 
90 


20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

29 


$110.00 
121.00 
132.00 
143.00 
154.00 


$100 
110 
120 
130 
140 


$90.00 
99.00 
108.00 
117.00 
126.00 


$100 
110 
120 
130 
140 















No. 1.— If spoken east of Five Fathom Bank Lightship; or north of Hereford, Inlet Lightship, 



_ - . „ . , ■ south 

of Fen wick Island Light. 

No. 2.— If spoken inside of Five Fathom Lightship and outside of the line drawn from Cape May Light 
to Cape Henlopen Light. 

No. 3.— If not spoken until inside of Une drawn from Cape May Light to Cape Henlopen Light. 



Pilotage work within Philadelphia Harbor is done by tugboats, 
and charges are governed by specific cases. If a state pilot is taken 
(this is not compulsory) a charge of $20 is made. 



DOCKAGE. 

Railroad piers. — ^For information regarding dockage at railroad 
piers see that section of this report deaUng with railroads. 

Public piers. — The charges at public piers are as follows: Steam- 
ers, 2 cents per net ton per day; sailing vessels, 1 cent per ton per 
day ; barges, 1 cent per ton per day. There is a minimum charge of 
$5 per day for docking at covered piers and $2 per day at open piers 
and bulkheads. 

At the municipal piers no free dockage is granted freighters. 
Municipal wharf property may be leased at from 25 to 40 cents per 
square foot of gross wharf area per year. 

Private piers. — The rates are substantially the same as those at 
public piers. Some private piers make a flat rate of $100 per day 
for steamers. 



28 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Doekage rates at petroleum wharves, Point Breeze, Philadelphia, and Marcus Hook, Pa. 



Vessel's registered tonnage (tons). 


For vessels 

lying at inside 

berths, either 

idle or working, 

and while 

working at 

outside berths. 


Vessel's registered tonnage (tons). 


For vessels 

lying at inside 

berths, either 

idle or working, 

and while 

working at 

outside berth-s. 




Per day. 

$2.75 
3.25 
3.75 
4.50 
6.00 
5.25 
5.50 
6.00 
6.50 
6.75 
7.00 
7.50 
8.00 
8.50 
9.00 
9.25 
9.50 
9.75 
10.00 
10.50 
11.00 
11.50 
12.00 
12.50 
13.00 


2,700 


Per day. 


300 


2,800 




400 . 


2,900 


14 50 


500 


3,000 


15 00 


600 


3,100 




700 


3,200 




800 


3,300 .... 


16 50 


900 


3,400 


17 00 


1,000 


3,500 






3,600 




1 200 


3,700 


18 50 


1,300 


3,800 






3,900 




1 500 


4,000 


20 00 


1,600 


4,100 


20.50 




4,200 




1,800 


4,300 


21 50 


1,900 


4,400 


22.00 


2,000 


4,500 


22.50 


2,100 


4,600 


23.00 


2,200 


4,700 


23 50 


2,300 


4,800 


24.00 


2,400. 


4,900 




2 500 


5,000' 


25 00 


2,600 











1 From 1921 annual report of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange. 
* And so on at the same rate of increase ad infinitum. 

Dockage at grain elevators? — No charge for dockage is made by grain elevator com- 
panies on steamships from the time of their arrival at elevator berth until after com- 
pletion of loading. 

Dockage rates at wharves of sugar refineries.^ — When vessels discharge at wharves of 
refineries, where the great bulk of sugar is discharged, the following rates of dockage 
(locally called wharfage) to be paid by vessel: Steamer, $4 per day for the first 200 
tons net register of vessel and three-quarters of 1 cent for each additional net 
register ton. (A steamer of 2,500 tons net register would therefore pay for dockage 
$21.25 per day.) Sail, $4 per day for the first 200 tons net register of vessel and 
one-half of 1 cent for each additional net register ton. (A sailing vessel of 1,200 tons 
net register would therefore pay for dockage $9 per day.) 

According to the custom of the port of Pliiladelphia, in computing dockage the day the 
vessel arrives at and the day the vessel leaves discharging berth are counted one full day. 

Vessel demurrage.^ — In case a vessel is loaded by 12 o'clock noon on the day after 
expiration of her lay days allotted for loading and vessel can still clear at the custom- 
house and the consulate the same day, no demurrage shall be charged by vessel to 
charterers for the use of that portion of a day. Should the vessel not be able to clear 
until Monday, owing to the day after expiration of lay days being Saturday, then the 
vessel shall be entitled to two days' demurrage. 

When a rate is not specifically stipulated by the charter or bills of lading, demurrage 
on steamers is computed at the rate of 10 cents per net register ton per day and on 
sailing vessels at the rate of 6 cents per net register ton per day. 

Demurrage on seagoing sailing vessels shall be as follows, viz: For vessels of 200 
tons or under, 12 cents per ton; for vessels over 200 tons and not exceeding 500 tons, 
$24 for the first 200 tons and 8 cents per ton for each ton additional; for vessels over 
500 tons and not exceeding 900 tons, $48 for the first 500 tons and 6 cents per ton for 
each ton additional; for vessels over 900 tons, $72 for the first 900 tons and 5 cents per 
ton for each ton additional. 

WHARFAGE. 

See section of this report dealing with railroads. 

» From 1921 annual report of the Philadelphia Maritime Exchange. 



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PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

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30 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

TOWING CHARGES FOR STEAMERS WITHIN THE HARBOR. 

(a) For transporting between Pier G, Port Richmond, and Point House, as 

follows: Each 

From stream or anchorage opposite to dock above Market Street or vice ^* 

versa $30 

From stream or anchorage opposite to dock below Market Street or vice 

versa 30 

From lower anchorage or stream to dock above Market Street or from upper 

anchorage or stream to dock below Market Street or vice versa 40 

From dock to dock above Market Street or from dock to dock below Market 

Street 35 

From dock above Market Street to dock below Market Street or vice versa. . 45 

From dock or anchorage below Market Street to or from — 

League Island, dock or anchorage, or mouth Schuylkill anchorage 50 

Girard Point 55 

Point Breeze or Gibsons Point 75 

Hog Island, Bramell Point, or Thompsons Point 75 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook 90 

Deep Water Point 150 

From dock or anchorage above Market Street to or from — 

League Island, dock or anchorage, or mouth Schuylkill anchorage GO 

Girard Point 65 

Point Breeze or Gibsons Point .' 85 

Hog Island, Bramell Point, or Thompsons Point 85 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook 100 

Deep Water Point IGO 

(b) For transporting from anchorage at League Island or mouth of Schuylkill 
River to — 

Girard Point or vice versa 40 

Point Breeze or vice versa 55 

Gibsons Point or vice versa CO 

Hog Island, Bramell Point, or Thompsons Point or vice versa 75 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook or vice versa 90 

Deep Water Point or vice versa 140 

(c) For transporting from Girard Point to — 

Point Breeze or vice versa 55 

Gibsons Point or vice versa GO 

Hog Island, Bramell Point, or Thompsons Point or vice versa 85 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook or vice versa 90 

Deep Water Point or vice versa 150 

(d) For transporting from stream or anchorage opposite to — 

Hog Island, Bramell Point, or Thompsons Point or vice versa G5 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook, or vice versa 75 

(e) For transporting from dock to dock at points between Bramell Point and 
Marcus Hook or vice versa 100 

(/) For transporting from stream or anchorage off Deep Water Point to Deep 

Water Point Wharf or vice versa 125 

(g) For transporting at Girard Point 50 

(/j) For transporting at Point Breeze 55 

(i) For transporting from Point Breeze to — 

Hog Island, Bramell Point, or Thompsons Point or vice versa 115 

Chester, Thurlow, or Marcus Hook or vice versa 125 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 31 

(;■) Services attending on steamer or furnishing steam to steamer, $15 per hour. 
(All movements to or from points between Pier G and Tioga Street, each tug addi- 
tional.) 

(k) If tugs are sent to move a steamer, and for any cause the steamer is not ready 
and tugs are not discharged, then detention to be paid by the steamer for each tug at 
the rate of $12 per hour. 

(l) If tugs are sent to move a steamer, and for any cause the steamer is not ready or 
has not arrived, and tugs are discharged, then steamer to pay each tug at the rate of 
$15 per hour. 

(to) For all work performed on Sunday or holidays the steamer to pay each tug 
double the rate in above schedule applying to the particular movement. Sunday 
work to be optional with towing interests, which are not to be liable for any inability 
or refusal to perform Sunday work or for any delay or loss to steamer resulting from 
the same. 

(n) If tug or tugs are ordered into service by either the master or agent of a steamer 
for a movement expected to be performed on Sunday or holiday, and the movement 
is not performed, then the steamer to pay each tug double the rate in above schedule. 

(o) If tug or tugs are ordered and sent to perform a movement and the steamer 
performs the movement without the assistance of the tug or tugs, then the steamer to 
pay the tug or tugs the rate in above schedule applying to the particular movement, 
the same as if the tug or tugs had performed the movement; provided, however, the 
tug or tugs report when ordered. 

(p) Steamer to also pay the charge made by the master of the tug for directing the 
movement of the steamer. 

iq) The above rates and terms supersede all previous schedules of rates and terms, 
and are effective from January 10, 1920, and only when the river is free from ice. 

(r) When ice interferes ^vith navigation, then the rate for to^ving, transporting, or 
attending on steamers will be at the rate of $20 per houi" for each tug employed, with 
a minimum of not less than the clear water rate in above schedule applying to the 
particular movement. 

(s) All the above rates and terms are contingent upon strikes, accidents, and other 
causes beyond the control of the towing interests. 



LIGHTERAGE. 

There is very little lighterage of general cargo at Philadelphia. All 
of the piers used for general shipping are on the west bank of the 
Delaware River, and, in conjunction with the public belt hue, are 
reached by the rails of all carriers servuig the port ; hence there is no 
need for Ughterage in connection with the usual movements of 
through traffic to and from shipside. Lighters are sometmies used, 
however, for moving heavy pieces to shipside, thus avoiding an 
extra movement of the ship from its customary berth to a pier 
equipped with the requisite handling facihties; and it is not unusual 
for case and barrelled oil to be lightered from refineries on the Schuyl- 
kill to vessels berthed at the Delaware piers. On freight moving by 
rail, destined to or received from foreign ports, the tarift's provide 
that if tlie fine haul pays nine cents per 100 pounds, lighterage is free, 
and the freight is dehvered ''alongside vessel in Philadelphia harbor, 
such deUvery to be made either by fighter, car float, team, or other- 



32 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

wise at the option of the railroad company." This does not apply 
to freight in bulk or for heavy pieces of freight. If the line haul 
pays less than nine cents per 100 pounds, there is assessed an additional 
lighterage charge of three and one-half cents or such amount as will 
bring the combined Hne haul and lighterage charges to nine cents. 
For more detailed information regarding lighterage rates and rules of 
the several railroads serving the port of Philadelphia, see Raiboads. 



STORAGE. 

This subject is covered under Railroads, and Storage Warehouses. 

LOADING AND DISCHARGING VESSELS. 

Freight-handling machinery. — At all piers package freight is 
handled from pier to ship by the ship's tackle. Freight is moved on 
the piers and in the freight sheds by hand and electric trucks. The 
grain piers have conveyers which carry the grain through galleries 
extending onto the piers. The ore terminals are equipped with 
electrically operated ore unloaders. Coal-handUng terminals are 
equipped with modern machinery for loading. The terminals used for 
handling lumber and sand are equipped with derricks. At some of the 
railroad piers there are large electrically operated derricks for han- 
dling heavy machinery, etc. Floating derricks can be secured for 
handling heavy articles. Detailed information regarding the han- 
dUng facihties will be found in the table relating to piers, wharves, 
and docks. 

Discharge of cargoes. — Vessels with general cargo from a foreign 
port, on making entry at the Philadelphia customhouse, may discharge 
such cargo at any proper and accessible point within the limits of the 
port where there is sufiicient water and proper facilities for unloading. 

Vessels with cargo in bulk, such as coal, salt, chalk, sulphur, rail- 
road iron, iron ore and other like articles, upon entry at the Phila- 
delphia customhouse, duties having been paid and proper permits 
obtained, may discharge under supervision of the customs officers at 
any suitable place within the district, including Camden, Chester, or 
Thurlow, and even as far down as Marcus Hook (the utmost limit of 
the customs district on the south) if the necessity exists, and the 
consignees of vessel and cargo jointly apply for the privilege. 

Methods employed in handling inward cargo. — In receiving 
foreign merchandise the ship is usually brought alongside the pier 
and turned over to the stevedores, who open the hatches and with the 
use of the ship's gear break out the cargo and land it on the wharf, 
where it is piled according to the directions of the steamship clerks. 
Under the supervision of the customs officials merchandise is weighed 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 33 

or gauged by the surveyor's department and examined by the ap- 
praiser's department as may be necessary. No merchandise is taken 
from the pier until properly released by the inspectors in charge of 
the ship. The receipts are then taken by the steamship clerks from 
the consignee or his agent and freight handlers employed by the rail- 
road companies place the freight in railway cars or it is loaded upon 
trucks for city delivery or storage. 

Loading cargoes. — Shippers loading outward cargo may, prior to 
clearance at customhouse, be required to deliver such cargo at any 
proper and accessible point within the limits of the port of Philadel- 
phia as defined for custom purposes, where there is sufficient water 
and where proper facilities exist for loading. The supervision of 
customs officers becomes necessary only upon shipment of merchandise 
subject to drawback duty or exported in bond. 

Methods employed in iiandling outward cargo.— Outward 
foreign freight is generally brought on freight cars direct to the piers. 
The freight is removed from the cars and placed in the transit sheds 
upon the piers by freight handlers in the employ of the railroad com- 
panies, whence it is loaded on the steamer and stowed by stevedores 
at the expense of the steamship company. Receipts are given the 
consignor or agent by the steamship company. 

Coastwise merchandise is handled in the same manner except that 
it is not under the supervision of customs officials. 

Some of the stevedores at the port are very efficient and they have 
made some fine records for loading and unloading. Normally two 
gangs of 20 men each work a hatch, but the number varies with the 
kind of cargo, and the practice of the stevedores. 

Cost of loading and unloading. — The actual cost is charged for 
operation of the steam winches and the services in connection with 
piling and trucking of cargo on wharf, extra labor required for clean- 
ing holds and docks, shifting dunnage, and other work. Vessels are 
required to furnish hoisting equipment, hoisting power, and rope. 
The cost of loading and unloadmg varies at different piers and is also 
dependent upon the character of the cargo. 

Names of some stevedoring contractors of the port. 

Atlantic Coast Shipping Co., Inc 329 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Belleni, Charles Bourse Building, Philadelphia. 

Belleni, O Do. 

Boney, Morris Drexel Building, Philadelphia. 

Carter & Weekes Stevedoring Co 400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Coppolino & Son, Matthew Drexel Building, Philadelphia. 

Corcoran & Co., J. A Do. 

Dougherty & Son, John Bourse Building, Philadelphia. 

General Transport & Stevedoring Co 430 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 



34 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Hewlett, James E 2919 South Lambert Street, Philadelphia. 

Hewlett, M. P Bourse Building, Philadelphia. 

Loveland Co., S. C 151 South Front Street, Philadelphia. 

Murphey, Cook & Co Bourse Building, Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia Ceiling & Stevedoring Co Do. 

Phillips, William J 1125 East Moyamensing Avenue, Phila- 
delphia. 

Sullivan, Thos. F 329 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Tucker Stevedoring Co 103 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Union Stevedoring Corp 136 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. 

Transit cargo. — Information relative to the charges and practices 
affecting the movement of cargo through the port is given in the part 
of this report devoted to railroads. Undelivered or unclaimed import 
freight is held in Government warehouses under the supervision of 
the United States storekeepers. It will be held for a period of three 
years, where the nature of the goods permit, after the expiration of 
which it is disposed of by auction. 

Checking and tallying. — The cargo is checked at the time of 
loadmg or unloading by steamship clerks and the United States 
customs inspectors. Railroad freight is tallied twice, once by rail- 
road clerks, and once by steamship clerks. Receipt for inward cargo 
is given to the steamship clerks by customs representatives or the 
consignee or his agent by signing the delivery book on the dock. 
Receipt for outward cargo is given to the shipper's agent by steamship 
clerks. This is not a negotiable receipt, but must be returned to the 
agent's office in exchange for a negotiable bill of lading. 

Rules for Loading Grain. 

THE BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS OF NEW YORK (mARINE). 

By steamers loading grain at ports of the United States, destined for Europe, 
certificates of loading are required and the rules outlined herein are to be properly 
observed. These rules emanate from "The Board of Underwriters of New York" 
and are designed for the regular protection of the vessels as well as for the interests 
of the shippers. 

These rules received the concurrence of the Board of Trade, London. 

Owners and agents are particularly requested to give early notice to the office of 
the Board of Underwriters when ready for fitting and when ready to receive grain. 

1. The freeboard shall be measured from top of deck at side of vessel to the water's 
edge at the center of the load water line; vessels having freeboards assigned by the 
rules of the Board of Trade (marine department), London, shall not be loaded deeper 
than permitted by those rules. 

2. Shifting boards (except as provided for in rule 11) must extend from the upper 
deck to the floor when grain is carried in bulk, and must be grain tight, with grain- 
tight fillings between the beams, and are to extend to the top of all amidship feeders. 
When grain is carried in bags the shifting boards must extend from deck to deck in 
the between decks, and not less than 4 feet downward from the beams in the lower 
hold. 

3. Shifting boards referred to in all rules shall be of 2-inch yellow pine, or of 3-inch 
spruce (or equivalent). 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 35 

4. All hatch feeders and bulkheads must be boarded on the inside. 

5. The grain must be well trimmed up between the beams and in the wings, and 
the space between them completely filled. 

6. No coal shall be carried on deck of steamers sailing between the 1st of October 
and the 1st of April beyond such a supply as will be consumed prior to the vessels 
reaching the ocean. 

7. Care must be taken that when grain in bags or other cargo is stowed over bulk 
grain, the bulk grain must be covered with two thicknesses of boards placed fore 
and aft and athwartships, with spaces between the lower boards of not more than 
4 feet, and between the upper boards of not more than 9 inches. Care must be 
taken that all the bags are properly stowed, in good order, and well filled, and that 
the tiers are laid close together. 

8. Grain in poop, peaks, and/or bridge deck must have such grain bags and 
proper dunnage and shifting boards. 

9. Steamers having water ballast tanks must have them covered with a grain-tight 
platform made of 2^ or 3 inch sound and dry planks; but this platform may be dis- 
pensed with where the top of the tanks are of heavy plates and precautions are taken 
against overflow from the bilges. 

10. Steamships without ballast tanks, having a cargo platform in good order, will 
not be required to fit a grain floor over it, otherwise such grain floor will be required. 

11. Steamers loading small quantities of grain in lower holds, not more than one- 
third of the capacity of a compartment, will not be required to have shifting boards. 
The grain must have the proper separations as provided for in rule 7, and be secured 
with cotton or other suitable cargo. 

12. Single-deck steamers, with a continous hold forward, will be required to have 
a closed bulkhead to divide the same. This rule will also apply to the afterhold. 

13. Shifting boards must be properly secured to stanchions, or shored every 8 feet 
of length and every 5 feet of depth of hold, including hatchways. Shores to be 3 by 
8 inches or 4 by 6 inches. 

14. No bulk grain or seeds in bulk (^except oats and/or cotton seed, as hereinafter 
provided in rules 21, 22 and 23) to be carried in between decks, nor where a ship has 
more than two decks, between the two upper decks, unless in feeders, properly con- 
structed, to fill the orlop and lower hold. Bulk grain may be carried on orlop or third 
deck below, provided said orlop has wing openings and amidship feeders to feed 



15. Steamers with two or more decks not having sufficient and properly constructed 
wing and amidship feeders, will be required to leave sufficient space above the 
bulk in lower hold not less than 5 feet under deck beams to properly secure it with 
bags or other cargo; the bulk to be covered with boards as in rule 7. If an orlop deck 
has sufficient openings to the lower hold the orlop and lower hold may be considered 
as one hold and loaded accordingly. 

16. Steamers having one deck and beams may carry bulk to such a height as will 
permit the stowage over it of not less than four tiers of bags or other suitable cargo. 
All bags or other cargo to be stowed on two tiers of boards, as provided for in rule 7. 

17. Steamers with laid-between decks must have hatchway feeders, and if the 
distance in the lower holds, between the forward bulkhead in said holds and the 
nearest end of the hatchway feeders, exceeds 16 feet (unless in the opinion of the 
surveyor the distance should be less), then vessel must have a wing feeder on each 
side, pro\ided in the between decks, to feed this space. If there are no openings in 
the between decks for wing feeders, four heights of bags must be put on top of the 
bulk grain from the bulkhead to within 16 feet of the feeders. 

The same rule applies when the distance between the after end of the hatchway 
feeders and the after bulkhead in lower holds exceeds 16 feet. 

18. Bags stowed or laid between decks must be dunnaged. 



36 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

19. Steamers of the type known as "turret, " with single deck, or single deck and 
beams, may load full cargoes of grain in bulk, but must have sliifting boards as required 
in rules 2, 3, and 13, and if required by surveyor, trimming bulkheads forward and 
aft extending from deck to floor, or if coming under hatches to top of coaming as 
directed by the surveyor and substantially fitted under their supervision. The loose 
grain in the end compartments to be secured by not less than four tiers of bags on 
boards properly laid, as provided for in rule 7. 

20. Steamers that are partly single deck and partly double deck, known as switch- 
back and as part awning-deck steamers, may load all bulk grain in the lower holds of 
their double-deck compartments, providing proper amidship feeders and wing feeders 
are fitted, but the space in the between decks around the feeders must be filled with 
bagged grain or general cargo, but if the vessel is too deep to carry any grain or other 
cargo in the between decks the feeders are to be shored or properly secured to the 
satisfaction of the surveyor. 

If there are no openings in between decks for wing feeders, and the bulk heads are 
more than 16 feet away from the nearest end of the amidship feeders, four heights of 
bags must be put on top of the bulk grain from the bulkheads to within 16 feet of the 
feeders, xmless in the opinion of the surveyor, the distance should be less. 

Bunker hatches may be used as feeders when feasible. The quantity of bulk grain 
in the feeders must be at least 2^ per cent of the carrying capacity of the hold. 

21. Full cargo of oats andjor cotton seed. — Steamers with double bottoms for water 
ballast may carry a full cargo of oats and /or cotton seed (except as provided for in 
rule 8), but if with two or more decks must have tight wing and hatch feeders to feed 
the lower hold, or orlop, as provided for in rule 17. 

21. Part cargo of oats andjor cotton seed. — When the quantity of oats and/or cotton 
seed carried in bulk between the two upper decks exceeds 60 per cent of the capacity 
of said deck, the excess over 50 per cent may be stowed in bulk in compartments 
fitted with wing shifting boards extending from bulkheads at each end of hold to 
within 4 feet of the hatches, one of such compartments shall be the largest between 
deck compartments ; or, where a steamer has four or more compartments in between 
decks, oats and/or cotton seed may be loaded in bulk in all of these compartments 
if they are provided with wing feeders of increased size to reach from the forward 
and after bulkhead to within 4 feet of hatches. The hatch feeders, or feeders for 
lower hold, must be capped boxed feeders 5 or 6 feet in depth. All holds are to 
be so fitted. 

23. In single-deck steamers oats and /or cotton seed may be loaded over heavy grain 
with proper separations in two holds, but the grain in all other holds must be properly 
secured with bagged grain or other cargo easily handled. This rule applies also to 
steamers where some holds are double and some single decks. 

24. Modern two-deck steamers with large trimming hatches may have properly 
constructed feeders not to exceed 12 by 16 feet. 

25. Stokehold bulkheads and donkey-boiler recesses are required to be sheathed 
with wood and made grain tight, with an air space between the iron and the wood 
when exposed to heat from fire room or donkey boiler. When already properly 
sheathed surveyor may pass the vessel, but not less than 9 inches of space vvill be 
required where the sheathing is to be erected or renewed. This rule applies where 
the fires are liable to cause damage by excessive heat from the stokehold or donkey 
boiler. 

26. Single-deck steamers with high hatch coamings loading full or part cargoes of 
grain in bulk. 

1. The hatch coamings may be used as feeders, and must be of sufficient size 
to admit of not less than 2^ per cent of the total grain in the hold being stored 
within the coamings; otherwise the bulk grain must be secured by four heights 
of bags. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 37 

2. When hatch coamings are utilized for feeders, and such coamings extend 
into the hold a foot or more below the main deck, such coamings in the part below 
the deck are required to have two 2-inch openings in the coamings, between 
the beams, to allow the grain to feed into the wings and ends of the hold. 

3. The hatch coamings must be properly supported by heavy iron cross beams 
and fitted with fore and aft shifting boards. 

4. The hatch coamings must be so placed that they are capable of feeding the 
center and both ends of the holds. 

27. In the event of unusual construction of vessels which may necessitate deviation 
from the foregoing rules, the surveyor must obtain the approval of the loading com- 
mittee of the board. 

The Philadelphia Maritime Exchange. 

MARITIME rules GOVERNING THE LOADING OF GRAIN CARGOES AT THE PORT 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

The rules in effect covering transactions among members of the above exchange are 
as follows: 

1. Notice of readiness. — Notice that a vessel is ready for cargo must be served on char- 
terers, or their duly accredited representatives, not later than 4 p. m., and on Saturday 
before 12 o'clock noon. 

In case of a steamer chartered to load a cargo of grain at Philadelphia, such notifica- 
tion of readiness, to be valid, must be accompanied by a pass of the local surveyor 
designated by a board of marine underwriters, certifying to vessel's actual readiness to 
receive her cargo of grain, and vessel must have been entered at the customhouse. 

2. Commencement of lay days. — Lay days of a steamer chartered to load grain at 
Philadelphia, and complying with rule 1, will commence at 7 a. m. the next day fol- 
lowing the service of her notification of readiness, provided said following day is not a 
Sunday or legal holiday. 

3. Delivery of orders to vessel. — In connection with rules 1 and 2, charterers are re- 
quired to deliver orders by 4.30 p. m. to the agents of vessel, for steamer to move to her 
place of loading. In event of such orders as to place of loading being given to the 
agents of vessel as provided above, and vessel arrives at her place of loading by 7 a. m. 
between the 1st of April and the 1st of November, or by 8 a. m. between the 1st of 
November and the 1st of April on the day following her notification of readiness, the 
lay days shall then count in conformity with original notice, as per rule 2. If vessel 
arrives at her place of loading later than 7 a. m. or 8 a. m. (as stipulated above), but not 
later than 12 o'clock noon, the days shall commence to count at noon of the day of her 
arrival at the place of loading, unless that day is Saturday, in which case time shall 
count from 7 a. m. the following business day. If vessel arrives at her place of loading 
after 12 o'clock noon, time shall commence to count at 7 a. m. of the next business day 
following her ani-\-al at said place of loading. 

In the event of orders for vessel to move to her place of loading not being served on 
the agents of the vessel as required above, the vessel must, upon receipt of such orders, 
proceed to her place of loading as soon thereafter as tide and weather will permit, the 
lay days, however, to count as per original notification of readiness delivered in ac- 
cordance with this rule. 

5. In case where any portion of a day more than one-half day is used in loading a 
vessel after the expiration of lay days stipulated for loading in charter party, such 
portion of lay day so used shall be charged and paid for by charterers as one full day's 
demurrage per charter party, except in case where lay days of vessel would have ex- 
pired at noon, as defined in rule 3, in which case the balance of such day of expiration 
shall be charged for as one-half of one day's demurrage. 



38 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

6. Clearance. — Charterers shall be allowed the day after completion of loading of 
cargo in which to clear same at the customhouse and to prepare necessary shipping 
documents, provided vessel has completed loading within her lay days. 

7. Definition of word '^ about.'" — In chartering, the word "about," when applied to 
readiness of a vessel to load or to sail, either in respect to this or another American 
port or a foreign port, shall be understood not to exceed five days. 

8. Strike dame. — Lay days shall not count during the continuance of a strike of 
employees of the elevator at or from which vessel has to load, or of stevedores or labor- 
ers, which entirely stops charterers from delivering cargo to the vessel, or the vessel 
from receiving said cargo. The charterers and the vessel are mutually exempt from 
responsibility to one another for delay caused by such strikes. 

9. Lay days and demurrage. — Lay days and demurrage on steamers chartered for full 
cargoes of grain to load at Philadelphia shall be as follows: 

15,000 to 20,000 quarters 10 per cent more or less, four running lay days, Sundays 
and legal holidays excepted. 

21,000 to 28,000 quarters 10 per cent more or less, five running lay days, Sundays 
and legal holidays excepted. 

29,000 to 35,000 quarters 10 per cent more or less, 6 running lay days, Sundays 
and legal holidays excepted. 

36,000 to 45,000 quarters 10 per cent more or less, seven running lay days, Sun- 
days and legal holidays excepted. 

Demurrage, 4d. per net registered ton per day. 

10. Separation. — The following expressions, "if shipped," "when more than one 
kind of grain is shipped," "where shipped," when contained in a charter party, shall 
be understood to apply to distinctive varieties of grain, such as wheat, corn, rye, 
flaxseed, oats, or barley, and not to different grades or qualities of the grain. 

The expense of separating different grades of grain, when said separations exceed 
three, shall be for account of charterers. 

11. Shifting berths. — In the event of steamer being ordered to proceed to more than 
one loading berth, all necessary additional expense incurred in shifting steamer to 
be borne by charterers. 

12. Signing bills of lading. — Charterers desiring the signature of master to bills of 
lading for cargo shipped must notify agents of vessel before 3 p. m. and on Saturdays 
before 11 a. m. 

MARITIME RULES GOVERNING THE LOADING OF PETROLEUM CARGOES AT THE PORT OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

1. Notice of readiness. — Between the 1st of November and the 1st of April, notice 
that a vessel is ready for cargo must be served on charterers, or their duly accredited 
representatives, by 3 o'clock p.m., and between the 1st of April and the 1st of Novem- 
ber by 4 o'clock p. m., and on Saturday (legal half-holiday) by 11 o'clock a. m. 

2. In case of a sailing vessel or steamer chartered to load a cargo of petroleum in cases 
and/or barrels at Philadelphia, notification of readiness shall not be valid unless suffi- 
cient ballast (if any ballast be required) is on board vessel and duly trimmed; and in 
case of tank oil vessels, the tanks are all tight and free of water, and in every way ready 
for cargo, the said notification of readiness when required by charterers to be accom- 
panied by a certificate from » recognized stowage inspector of Philadelphia. 

3. Delivery of orders to vessel. — In connection with rules 1 and 2, charterers are re- 
quired to deliver orders by 4 o'clock p. m., to the agents of vessel, for vessel to move to 
her place of loading, between the Ist of November and the Ist of April, and by 5 o'clock 
p. m. between the 1st of April and the 1st of November. In event of such orders as to 
place of loading being given to the agent of vessel as provided above, and vessel arrives 
at her place of loading by 7 o'clock a. m., say, between the Ist of April and the 1st of 



THE PORT or PHILADELPHIA, PA. 39 

November, or by 8 o'clock a. m. between the let of November and the Ist of April, 
on the day following her notification of readiness, the lay days will commence at 7 
a. m. the next day following the service of her notification of readiness, provided said 
following day is not a Sunday or legal holiday. If vessel arrives at her place of loading 
later than 7 o'clock a. m. or 8 o'clock a. m. (aa stipulated above in this rule), but not 
later than 12 o'clock noon, the days shall commence to count at noon of the day of her 
arrival at the place of loading, unless that day is Saturday legal half-holiday, in which 
case time shall count from 7 o'clock a. m. the following working day. 

4. Demurrage. — In case where any portion of a day more than one-half day is used 
in loading a vessel after the expiration of lay days stipulated for loading in charter 
party, such portion of lay day so used shall be charged and paid for by charterers as 
one full day's demurrage per charter party, except in" case where lay days of vessel 
would have expired at noon, per rule 3, in which case the balance of such day of 
expiration shall be charged for as one-half of one day's demurrage. 

5. In case a vessel is loaded by 12 o'clock noon on the day after expiration of lay 
days allotted for loading, and vessel can still clear at the customhouse and the con- 
sulate the same day, no demurrage shall be charged by vessel to charterers for the use 
of that portion of a day. Should the vessel not be able to clear until Monday, owing 
to the next day after expiration of lay days being Saturday legal half-holiday, then the 
vessel shall be entitled to two days' demurrage. 

6. In the event of orders for vessel to move to her place of loading not being served 
on the agents of the vessel in accordance with rule 3, the vessel must, upon eventual 
receipt from the charterers of orders to move, proceed to her place of loading as soon 
thereafter as tide and weather will permit; the lay days, however, to count as per 
original notification of readiness delivered in accordance with rule 3. 

7. Clearance. — Charterers shall be allowed the day after the completion of loading 
of cargo in which to clear same at the customhouse and to prepare necessary sliipping 
documents, and rule 3, regarding Sundays and legal holidays, shall apply in this case, 
it being part of this rule that charterers shall clear the cargo, as stated, in time for 
vessel to be cleared at the customhouse and consulate in accordance with advertised 
oflBce hours. 

8. When vessel's name, nationality, tonnage, class in a specified "record" and 
position are correctly stated at time of charter and the vessel is accepted, the contract 
shall be considered closed, and subsequent insurance inquiries shall not affect the 
transaction. 

9. Definition of word "■about." — In chartering, the phrase "about," when applied 
to readiness of vessels to load or to sail, either in respect to a vessel in this or in another 
American port or in a foreign port, shall be understood to mean not to exceed five days 
for sailing vessel or for steamer from date of actual fixing of vessel. 

Note.— It is earnestly recommended that whenever it is at all possible that the 
use of such indefinite and misleading phrases as "nearly," "promptly," "about 
ready," "first-class," be avoided, and thus obviate many of the lawsuits and 
arbitrations certain to result from employing such indefinite terms. 

10. Ballast. — The stipulation that a vessel is to proceed in ballast to commence upon 
her charter does not admit of taking for ballast anything but unmerchantable stuff, 
such as water, sand, stone, dirt, or surplus bunker coal. 

11. Due diligence. — From the 1st of November to the 1st of March, from 8 o'clock 
a. m. until 5 o'clock p.m., and from the Ist of March to the 1st of November, from 
7 o'clock a. m. to 6 o'clock p. m., shall be considered due diligence on the part of the 
ship in loading oil. 

12. Employment of tivo gangs. — When practicable and not injurious to the stowage 
of the vessel (of which fact the regular stowage inspectors employed for the cargo 
shall be the judges and shall give their decision in writing), she shall, on demand of 
the charterers, employ two gangs for loading petroleum. 



40 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



13. Charterers. — It is understood that wherever the word "charterers" is used in 
the foregoing rules it means charterers or their duly accredited representatives. 

14. Strike clause. — In case a strike, at the petroleum yard at which or from which 
vessel is loading, shall make it impossible for charterers to furnish cargo, lay days are 
not to count during such strike, and in case of a strike of stevedores or other laborers 
employed by the vessel, preventing the latter from receiving cargo, the ship shall be 
free from responsibility on account of the delay. In either case, such vessels as are 
detained by strike, as above, shall not be charged any wharfage as long as they are 
prevented from receiving cargo on account of said strike. 

Lay-day scale — Sail — On vessels loading petroleum. 



IN BARRELS, 
Lay days. 



2,000 to 2,500 8 

2,501 to 3,500 9 

3,501 to 4,500 10 

4,501 to 5,500 11 

5,501 to 6,500 12 

6,501 to 7,500 13 

7,501 to 8,500 14 

8,501 to 9,500 15 



Lay days. 

9,501 to 10,500 16 

10,510 to 11,500 17 

11,501 to 12,500 18 

12,501 to 13,500 19 

13,501 to 14,500 20 

14,501 to 15,500 21 

15,501 to 16,500 22 



IN flASES (10 PER CENT) 

Lay days. 

10,000 10 

15,000 10 

20,000 12 

25,000 14 

30,000 16 

35,000 18 

40,000 20 

45,000 22 

50,000 23 

55,000 24 



Lay days. 

60,000 25 

65,000 26 

70,000 27 

75,000 28 

80,000 29 

85,000 30 

90,000 31 

95,000 32 

100,000 33 



MARITIME RULES GOVERNING THE DISCHARGE OF SUGAR CARGOES AT THE PORT OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

1. Commencement oj lay aays. — Lay days for the discharge of vessels with sugar 
cargoes shall begin 24 hours after the time of vessel's entry at the customhouse. In 
cases where Sunday or a holiday follows the day of vessel's entry, lay days shall begin 
48 hours after the time of vessel's entry. 

The office hours of the customhouse for the entrance and clearance of vessels are 
from 9 a. m. until 4.30 p. m., except on Saturday, when the hours for this purpose are 
from 9 a. m. until 12 noon. 

Note, — When a vessel is entered at the customhouse, say at 10 a. m. on Monday, 
her lay days shall begin to count from 10 a. m., Tuesday, or if entered at the cus- 
tomhouse, say at 2 p. m. on Monday, her lay days shall begin to count from 2 
p. m. Tuesday, or a vessel entered at customhouse before noon, say 11 a. m. on 
Saturday, her lay days shall begin to count from 11 a. m. Monday, and if Monday 
is a holiday then lay days shall count from 11 a. m. Tuesday. 

2. Discharge — Steam and sail — Steam. — In the absence of any explicit written agree- 
ment to the contrary between contracting parties, steamers are, according to the 
custom of the port of Philadelphia, entitled to discharge at the rate of 700 tons (2,240 
pounds) per weather working day, Sundays and legal holidays. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 41 

Sail. — In the absence of any explicit written agreement to the contrary between 
contracting parties, sailing vessels are, according to the custom of the port of Phiia- 
delphia, entitled to discharge per weather working day, Sundays and legal holidays 
excepted, as follows: From West Indies, Demerara, Hawaii, and Java in bags, at the 
rate of 325 tons (2,240 pounds). From Java in mats and baskets, and from East Indies 
and Brazil, at the rate of 250 tons (2,240 pounds). 

Weather working day. — ^A weather working day is understood to be a day suitable for 
the discharging of sugar cargoes. 

4, Weighing — Steam and sail. — Unless vessel stipulates at time of charter, or upon 
signing bills of lading, for the payment of freight upon the intake or invoice weight, 
or unless an agreed percentage for estimated loss in weight on cai-go during voyage is 
fixed, refiner or importer is justified in requiring vessel to participate in cost of ascer- 
taining weight of cargo delivered at port of discharge. The charge for weighing sugar 
caroges is 1 cent per 100 pounds, one-half of which cost, say one-half cent per 100 
pounds, is a proper charge to be made by refiner or importer to vessel, when freight 
is payable upon delivered weight, and where there is no special clause in charter 
party or bills of lading exempting vessel from this charge. 

5. Exchange — Steam and sail. — The sterling rate of exchange for marine freight, 
payable at Philadelphia on cargoes of sugar discharged here, to be as per Messrs. 
Brown Bros. & Co.'s certificate as to selling rate of exchange current at noon on day of 
vessel's entry at customhouse, for demand, or 60 days' sight bills on London. 

Owners and masters are urged to have the conditions upon which their freight is 
payable at port of discharge clearly defined in charter parties or bills of lading, which 
can be done by adopting either of the following clauses, A or B. If it is intended that 
freight should be payable in cash at the sight or demand rate of exchange on London 
let it be so specified, as in clause A. In like manner, if it is the intention for freight 
to be payable at the 60 days' sight rate of exchange on London, let it be so specified, 
as in clause B. 

(A) Freight to be payable in cash at the current rate of exchange for bankers' 
demand bills on London, at noon on day of vessel's entry at customhouse, Philadel- 
phia. 

(B) Freight to be payable in cash at the current rate of exchange for bankers' 60 
days' sight bills on London, at noon on day of vessel's entry at customhouse, Phila- 
delphia. 

The custom of the port requires vessels to discharge their cargoes of sugar at any 
safe, suitable wharf designated by refiner or other consignee of cargo. 



The following stevedoring rates, rates of pay and working condi- 
tions at the port of Philadelphia, were furnished by the operating 
department, United States Shipping Board: 

CONDITIONS GOVERNING ATTACHED MAXIMUM SCHEDULE OF STEVEDORING RATES FOR 

THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA. 

[Effective June 1, 1922.] 

(1) The vessel shall furnish and maintain in good order all necessary steam winches 
capable of lifting 5,000 pounds in single gear, blocks and ropes for falls, dunnage, 
gangways, hatch tents, and necessary lights, if work is to be performed at night; also 
cranes for heavy lifts, except at Pier G, Port Richmond and Eddystone. In cases 
where lifts in excess of 5,000 pounds are handled, with the vessel's own equipment, 
the cost of rigging and unrigging shall be for account of the vessel. 
2497°— 23 4 



42 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

(2) The stevedore shall furnish and transport to and from the vessel all other gear 
and articles necessary to properly load or unload the vessel, including slings (except 
in handling sugar cargoes at refinery), hooks, trucks, conveyers, save-alls, and shall, 
at his own expense, rig ship for loading and discharging and remove such rigging, take 
off and put on all hatches, and lay all dunnage. The stevedore company shall also 
furnish and pay all winchmen. 

(3) The stevedore shall not order out longshoremen under this agreement except 
on authority specifically given by the owner of the vessel or his agent, and then they 
shall be transported to and from the vessel at the stevedore's expense, except to 
points where extra travel expense is provided in the prevailing wage agreement, 
and to Pier 98 and points south on the Delaware River. 

(4) When men are ordered out to work and do not work, except where the men 
refuse to work owing to weather conditions, the owner of the vessel, or his agent 
ordering out the men, shall pay said men according to the provisions of the prevailing 
wage agi-eement; if they are ordered to wait on account of breakdown in machinery, 
absence of cargo or for shifts, they shall receive full time, to wit, the prevailing rates 
of wages for such waiting period, plus insurance. When extra men are required for 
piling and/or breaking down cargo or trucking cargo to and from a distance of more 
than 50 feet beyond each end of the ship and/or to and from a point 100 feet across 
the pier, and their employment has been authorized by the managing agent upon 
authority of the district agent, they shall be paid by the ship at the following rates: 
Daywork — General cargo men, 73 cents per hour; foremen, $1.15 per hour; oil, in city, 
men, 85 cents per hour; foremen, $1.30 per hour; grain men, 85 cents per hour; foremen, 
$1.25 per hour. Overtime — General cargo men, $1.15 per hour; foremen, $1.75 
per hour; oil, in city, men, 85 cents per hour; foremen, $1.90 per hour; grain men, 
$1.20 per hour; foremen, $1.75 per hour. Straight overtime — General cargo men, 42 
cents per hour; foremen, 63 cents per hour; oil, in city, men, 48 cents per hour; 
foremen, 68 cents per hour; grain men, 42 cents per hour; foremen, 63 cents per hour. 
Oil, Point Breeze and Gibsons Point, $10 per day or one-half day, straight time; 
$13.50 per day or one-half day, or night or one-half night overtime; foremen, $13 
per day or one-half day, straight time; $19 per day or one-half day, or night or one-half 
night overtime. 

(5) Where the stevedore is requested by the operator of the vessel to clean holds, 
cooper cargo, or do other legitimate ship's work, and the same has been authorized by 
the district agent of the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, 
the time worked shall be certified each night, and the stevedore shall be reimbursed 
for actual wages paid, plus insurance. This time shall be certified to by the head of 
the department on the ship for whom the services are performed and approved by the 
master of the vessel. 

(6) If the managing agent, upon authority of the district agent of the United States 
Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, authorizes overtime, it shall be paid 
for by the increase in the prevailing hourly wage of the men stevedoring any com- 
modity, as provided in the rate schedule appearing in paragraph 4 of these conditions. 

(7) All rates on the attached schedule in the offshore trade are on a long- ton basis 
of 2,240 pounds, except as otherwise specifically provided in the commodity list. 
All rates in the attached schedule for loading and discharging cargo in the intercoastal 
trade are on a short-ton basis of 2,000 pounds, imless otherwise indicated on said 
commodity list. General cargo includes all commodities not named on the commodity 
list attached and for which no commodity rate is provided, as well as scheduled com- 
modities where the manifest shows a total of less than 50 tons. 

(8) The stevedore operating under the attached schedule shall carry insurance at 
his own expense to protect the United States Shipping Board Emergency Corporation 
and its agents against liability for injury to employees in unlimited amount, as pro- 
vided in the laws of the State of Pennsylvania. The stevedore operating under the 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHTA, PA. 43 

attached schedule in the States of New Jersey and Delaware shall carry insurance at 
his own expense to protect the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet 
Corporation and its agents against liability for injury to employees, for which the 
stevedore is legally liable in the amount of $25,000 indemnity for any injury to any 
one person, and $100,000 for any injury to any number of persons in a single accident. 
The stevedore operating under the attached schedule in the States of Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, and Delaware shall carry insurance at his own expense to protect the 
United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation and its agents against 
liability for injury to the public for which the stevedore is legally lialjle in the amount 
of $25,000 indemnity for any injury to any one person and $100,000 indemnity for 
any injury to any number of persons in a single accident; and all said policies shall 
be submitted to the district agent of the United States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation for examination and approval. If the stevedore carries his own 
insxu-ance, then he shall indemnify the United States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation and/or its agents by a bond in similar amoimts against like liability 
for accidents to employees and the public, to the extent of his legal liability. Where 
a portion of the stevedore's insurance is carried by the United States Shipping Board 
Emergency P'leet Corporation through its P. & I. Association coverage, the amount 
saved by any company doing stevedoring work by such P. & I. Association coverage 
shall be deducted from the per ton rate charged the United States Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation for stevedoring work performed by such company. 

(9) When the stevedore handles cargo from the pile on the pier or in the warehouse 
and/or from cars, barges, scows, or booms alongside and stows same in the hold and/or 
on the deck of the vessel, he shall do so in a manner satisfactory to the master thereof 
or his agent, and when the stevedore discharges cargo from the vessel's hold and/or 
deck onto pier or into warehouse and/or onto cars, barges, scows, or booms alongside 
and/or piles same on the pier or in the warehouse, he shall do so in a manner satisfactory 
to the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation or its agents. 
The stevedore shall be liable for any damage or injury to ship or cargo in handling 
or stowing the same, as provided in this paragraph, which damage or injury is due 
to his neglect or fault. 

(10) No services in connection with loading or discharging of cargo will be paid for 
by the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation other than those 
specifically enumerated in these conditions, unless authority has been secured from 
the district agent of the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation 
for their performance. 

Commodity list loading and discharging for the port of Philadelphia. 

OFFSHORE TRADE. Per ton of 

2,240 pounds. 

Agricultural implements and machinery $1. 20 

Automobiles 1. 50 

Ballast: 
(When ship arrives, committee composed of three contractors shall make 
an examination of ballast on board vessel and submit a lump-sum com- 
petitive price, including estimate of time necessarj' for discharging, 
contract to be given lowest bidder.) 

Bones, in bulk, and bone ash in bags 1-65 

Calcutta and Bombay cargoes 1- 05 

Canned goods &5 

Car material 1-25 

Case goods, toys, etc. (very light) 2. 00 

Cement 70 

Chalk 85 

China clay (including necessary trucking) 85 



44 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Per ton of 
2,240 pounds. 

Cork, in bales $1. 27 

Copra 1. 10 

Fertilizer, in bags 75 

Flour, and similar bag cargo 85 

General cargo 1. 00 

Grain, in bulk, per M bushels (trimming) 3. 75 

Grain, filling into and stowing in bags, per M bushels extra. . 12. 50 

Grain, sewing bags in loading, per bag 02 

Grain, separation 17. 00 

Guano 70 

Hair, in bales 1. 05 

Heavy lifts, over 5,000 pounds (crane furnished by ship) 1. 25 

Heavy lifts, over 5,000 pounds (when loaded at Pier G, Port Richmond or 

Eddystone, or by ship's booms) 2. 50 

Hides, wet, per 1,000 (salted, loose) 40.00 

Hides, dry, per 1,000 19. 00 

Iron and other ore (under grabs) 46 

Iron and other ore (elsewhere) 70 

Iron pipe, wrought or cast, up to 12 inches diameter 1. 00 

Iron pipe, wrought or cast, 12 inches to 20 inches diameter 1. 35 

Iron pipe, wrought or cast, over 20 inches diameter 2. 50 

Kainit, in bulk (end ship's tackle) 75 

Linseed (end ship's tackle) 60 

Linseed, on pier (cleaning docks extra) 80 

Locomotives , 3. 00 

Lumber, per 1,000 ft., b. m L 60 

Nitrate of Soda: 

On cars or in scows 65 

On docks in Philadelphia 65 

At Thompson's Point 88 

Oil, barrel (city from dock or lighters), per barrel 20 

Oil, barrel (refinery from dock), per barrel 16 

Oil, barrel (refinery from lighters), per barrel 18 

Oil, barrel (loaded at Marcus Hook), per barrel 23 

Oil, in cases (refinery from dock or lighters), full cargoes, per case 02 

Oil, in cases (other than full cargoes), per case 02f 

Paper, all kinds 95 

Potash, in bags (end ship's tackle) 60 

Potash, in bulk (end ship's tackle) 70 

Rags 1.05 

Rails, steel, any weight, up to 40 feet in length 1. 00 

Rails, steel, any weight, over 40 feet in length 1. 25 

Rope, in coils 1. 05 

Ship plates, up to 5,000 pounds 95 

Ship plates, over 5,000 pounds 1. 25 

Steel billets and ingots 95 

Structural iron and steel, beams, angles and channels 1. 00 

Structural iron and steel, assembled 1. 50 

Steel, all kinds, loaded from covered pier, 15 cents per ton extra. 

Sugar, refined, at refinery, loading (including canvas slings which will be 

suppUed by stevedore) 80 

Sugar, raw, at refinery (Cuban), discharging (including rope slings which 

will be supplied by stevedore) 60 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 45 

Per ton of 
2,440 pounds. 
Sugar, raw, at refinery (Indian), discharging, bags (including canvas slings 

which will be supplied by stevedore) $0. 85 

Sugar, raw, at refinery (Indian), discharging, mats or baskets (including 

canvas sUngs which will be suppUed by stevedore) 98 

Sugar, raw, at refinery (Porto Rican), discharging (including canvas slings 

which will be supplied by stevedore) 75 

Sulphur 70 

Tobacco in hogsheads 1, 00 

Wool, South American 85 

Wool, all other countries 95 

Wood pulp, in bales 90 

General cargo (no extras on cargo), intercoastal trade: 

Loading 1. 45 

Discharging 1. 20 

Heavy lifts: 

Loading 3.00 

Discharging 3. 00 

At Philadelphia it has been the custom in the past to adopt, by 
verbal understanding only, a set of rates and working conditions 
approximating the New York scale. The bulk of the longshoremen 
in Philadelphia are represented by the United Marine Transport 
Workers, which was organized May 15, 1913, by the Industrial 
Workers of the World, and while there is a verbal understanding 
with this organization that certain fixed rates and conditions will be 
observed for a definite period, no negotiations or signed agreements 
are indulged in. The rates and conditions, however, are published 
by the employer, and have been observed also upon Shipping Board 
vessels. The following shows the wages and working conditions of 
dock labor on October 1, 1921: 

' ' UNDERSTANDING. ' ' 

The following rates of pay and working conditions are to apply in connection with 
longshoremen loading or discharging vessels at the port of Philadelphia, commencing 
October 1, 1921: 

1. Regular time. — The basic working day, excluding Sunday, shall consist of nine 
hours, namely, from 7 a. m. to 12 noon, and from 1 p. m. to 5 p. m., and on Saturday 
7 a. m. to 12 noon, totaling 50 hours a week. 

2. Overtime.— All other time shall be counted and paid for at the rate of $1 per hour. 

3. Holidays.— Legal holidays are: New Year's Day, Lincoln's Birthday, Washing- 
ton's Birthday, Good Friday, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Columbus 
Day, November Election Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and any other 
National or State holiday as may be proclaimed by executive authority. 

4. Work in stream. — When ships are working in the stream, time to be counted from 
time of leaving the pier until they return. 

5. No time work. — When men are ordered out to work, and not put to work, they 
shall be paid two hours at prevailing rates, except when work is prevented owing to 
weather conditions. 

6. Camden work.— It is understood that Camden is to be included in the rates cov- 
ering the port of Philadelphia and not to be considered out-of-town rates, but at half 
or whole day at proportionate rates. 



46 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

7. Basic hourly wage. — The hourly rate of wages paid, and on which all following 
day rates or other differential rates are based, shall be 65 cents per hour regular time, 
and $1 per hour overtime. 

8. General cargo. — In city limits. — On general cargo the men shall receive 65 cents 
per hour, straight time, and |1 per hour overtime. General cargo is understood to 
consist of cargo or merchandise of every description, excepting oil when part of 
general cargo, when the men who are employed on the ships stowing such barrel oil 
are to be paid 77 cents per horn- straight time, minimiun two hours, and $1.15 per 
hour overtime. 

9. General cargo. — Out of city. — When men are working general cargo out of city, 
and where work does not commence before 7 a. m. and does not continue after 5 p. m., 
the men to be paid $7 per day, or half day at proportionate rates, but where work 
continues after 5 p. m. then the men to receive $7.70 per day, or half day at propor- 
tionate rates. Ti-aveling allowance at 25 cents per day to Camden. 

Paragraph 9 has been amended by supplement, as follows: When men are 
working general cargo out of city and where work does not commence before 7 
a. m. and does not continue after 5 p. m., the men to be paid $7 per day, or half 
day at propoiHonate rate. All other working time to be classified as overtime 
at $1.05 per hour. When men are sent out of city as special night gangs, such 
men to be paid $10.50 per night or half night at proportionate rate. For work 
on Sundays, legal holidays, and Saturday afternoons, men to be paid $10.50 per 
day or half day at proportionate rate. 

10. Wet hides. — Men handling wet hides shall receiAO 90 cents per hour regular time 
and $1.35 per hour overtime. 

11. Oil cargo. — In city limits. — Kerosene, gasoline, and naphtha in barrels and/or 
in cases when loaded by oil gangs at the refinery, where the working hours are from 
7 a. m. to 5,30 p. m., the men shall receive $8.10 per day or half day at proportionate 
rates. When loaded as part of a general cargo, rates to apply as provided for under 
heading of "General cargo." 

12. Oil cargo. — Out of city. — When men are loading barrel oil out of city they are 
to be paid $8.10 per day or half day at proportionate rates, the day to be from 7 a. m. 
to 6 p. m. All other time to be at overtime rates, $1.15 per hoxir. 

13. Grain cargo. — When men are handling grain, such men are to be paid 75 cents 
per hour straight time. All other time to be overtime to be paid at rate of $1.05 
per hour. 

14. Explosives. — When men are handling explosives, such men are to be paid 
$9. GO per day, half day at proportionate rates. All overtime to be at rate of $1.35 
per hour. 

15. Damaged or salvaged cargo. — When men are handling cargo damaged by fire or 
water, such men to receive 90 cents per hour straight time, and $1.35 per hoiir o^ er- 
time. 

This agreement shall be effective for one year from October 1, 1921, but either 
side may give one month's notice March 1, 1922, asking for reconsideration of wages 
only for the second six months, in which case the question is to be submitted to 
arbitration. 

The following scale of wages is effective October 7, 1921, for carpenters employed 
on ship-fitting work at this port: 

Day worh {except Saturday afternoon). — 10-hour day, $7.50 per day. All other time 
to be overtime at $11.25 per day; three-fourths, one-half, and one-foirrth day at pro- 
portionate rate. 

If carpenters are ordered out to work and can not be put to work through no fault of 
their own, unless prevented by weather conditions, they are to receive two hours pay 
at prevailing rates. 

All other conditions to continue as at present. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



47 



TALLY CLERKS. 



The following rates of pay and working conditions are to apply in connection with 
tally clerka loading or discharging vessels at the port of Philadelphia, commencing 
October 1,1921: 

1. Regular time. — ^The basic working day, excluding Sunday, shall consist of nine 
hours, namely, from 7 a. m. to 12 noon, and from 1 p. m. to 5 p. m., and on Saturday 
7 a. m. to 12 noon, totaling 50 hours a week. 

2. Overtime. — All other time shall be counted and paid for at the rate of $1 per hour. 
(In the event of tallymen being employed as delivery clerks, then they are to receive 
$1.50 per day more than the foregoing rates.) 

3. Holidays. — Legal holidays are: New Year's Day, Lincoln's Birthday, Washing- 
ton's Birthday, Good Friday, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Columbus 
Day, November Election Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and any other 
National or State holiday as may be proclaimed by executive authority. 

4. Work in stream. — Wh.en ships are working in the stream, time to be counted from 
the time of leaving the pier until they return. 

5. No tim^ work. — \Mien men are ordered out to work and not put to work they shall 
be paid two hours at prevailing rates. In the event of the men being put to work the 
minimiun compensation shall be one-half day or night at proportionate rates. 

5. Camden work. — It is understood that Camden is to be included in the rates cover- 
ing the port of Philadelphia and not to be considered out-of-town rates but at half or 
whole day at proportionate rates. Traveling allowance, 25 cents per day per man. 

7. Basic daily wage. — The daily rate of wages paid shall be $5.50 per day regular 
time, and $1 per hour overtime. 

8. Out-of-city. — When men are working out-of-city where work does not commence 
before 7 a. m., and does not continue after 5 p. m., the men to be paid $6.50 per day 
or half -day at proportionate rates, but where work continues after 5 p. m., then the 
men to receive $1 per hour overtime. 

This agreement shall be effective for one year from October 1, 1921, but either side 
may give one month's notice March 1, 1922, asking for reconsideration of wages only 
for the second six months, in which case the question to be submitted to arbitration. 



Comparison of rates for deep-water longshoremen. 








Port. 


July, 
1914. 


July, 
1915. 


July, 
1916. 


July, 
1917. 


July, 
191S. 


Decem- 
ber, 
1918. 


Octo- 
ber, 
1919. 


Octo- 
ber, 
1920. 


Octo- 
ber, 
1921. 


North Atlantic. 


$0.33 
.33 
.30 
.25 

.25 

.20 
.25 

.30 
.40 
.40 

.50 
.55 
.55 
.45 


$0.33 
.33 
.30 
.25 
.275 

.20 
.25 

.30 
.40 
.40 

.50 
.55 
.55 
.45 


$0.40 
.40 
.40 
.275 
.30 

.20 
.25 

.30 
.40 
.40 

.50 
.55 
.55 
.50 


$0.40 
.40 
.40 
.35 
.35 

.25 
.25 

.35 
.40 
.40 

.70 
.70 
.60 
.65 


$0.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.55 

.35 
.30 

.50 
.50 
.50 

.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 


$0.65 
65 
.65 
.65 
.65 

.50 
.50 

.65 
.65 
.65 

.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 


$0.70 
.70 
.70 
.70 
.70 

.50 
.50 

.80 
.80 
.80 

.80 
.90 
.90 
.90 




$0.65 


New York. 




80 
80 
80 


PMadelphia . 


65 


Baltimore 




Norfolk 




South. Atlantic. 


.60 
.60 

.80 
.80 
.80 

.90 
.99 
.90 
.90 






35- 45 


Oulf. 
Mobile 




New Orleans 


.65 


Galveston 

Pacific. 
San Diego 


.65 


San Francisco.. 


1 90 


Portland... 


i 80 


Seattle 


>.80 











I Mar. 1, 1922, 80 cents. 



> Aug. 1, 1921. 



48 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



MISCELLANEOUS CHARGES. 



Running lines. — The charge for running Imes, ship to dock or 
reverse is S5. 

Shipping documents. — For making out bill of lading the cus- 
tomary charge is $1 per set, entering vessel at customhouse S5, clearing 
vessel $5, noting vessel's protest $2.50, and extending vessel's pro- 
test $15. 

Brolierage fees. — For ship charters the fee varies according to 
contract. Fees for effecting entry of goods at customhouse are sub- 
ject to private arrangement and are usually from $3.50 up. 

Agency fees. — The fees are determined by private arrangement. 
Ship brokers attendance fees on vessels average about $75. 

Interpreters' fees. — The immigration service has a corp of inter- 
preters who are paid $5. Interpreters of commercial firms charge 
$3.50 per hour. For preparmg manifests and other shippmg docu- 
ments $3 each in the commercial languages, and $5 each in other 
languages. 

Launch hire. — Three dollars per hour to ship in stream opposite 
Philadelphia, and $4 per hour on run to ship laying at Chester and 
Marcus Hook, Pa. 

Harbor dues. — There are no harbor dues at this port. 

Watchman. — The usual charge is $3.50 per day or night. 

Sewing bags. — Five dollars and fifty cents per day plus 5 per cent 
liabiUty insurance. 

Cooperage. — Five dollars and fifty cents per day, plus 5 per cent 
liabihty insurance. 

Measuring. — Five dollars and fifty cents per day, plus 5 per cent 
liabiUty insurance. 

Weighing. — Ore on dock, 10 cents per ton; on railway cars, $5 per 
day per man. Bones on dock, 15 cents per ton. Sugar, one cent per 
100 pounds. All other commodities average 15 to 20 cents per ton. 

Quarantine inspection.— Steamers from foreign ports $10, 
sailing vessels $5. 

Fumigation. — The charge is 16 cents for sulphur and 32 cents for 
cyanide per 1,000 cubic feet, plus labor and transportation. 

Hospital dues. — None. 

Ship dunnage. — The average charge for dunnage boards is from 
$20 to $25 per 1,000 feet; cordwood will average from $10 to $12 
per cord; planks about $36 per 1,000 feet; braces, 4 by 6 inches, $40 
to $60 per 1,000 feet; labor, 75 cents per hour. 

Tonnage. — A duty or tax of 2 cents per net ton is imposed on 
all vessels at each entry into a United States port from a foreign port 
or place in — 

North America. 

Central America. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



49 



West India Islands. 

Bahama Islands. 

Bennuda Islands. 

Newfoundland. 

Coast of South America, bordering on the Caribbean Sea, above and 
mcluding the mouth of the Orinoco River. 

This tax is not to exceed, in the aggregate, 10 cents per net ton 
in any one year. 

A tonnage tax of 6 cents per net ton is imposed at each entry on 
aU vessels which shall be entered in any port of the United States 
from any other foreign port or place. This tax is not to exceed 30 
cents per ton per annum. 

The tonnage year is computed from the date of the first payment, 
and expires on the day previous to the corresponding date of the 
following year. No tonnage tax is imposed on vessels entering a 
port in distress nor on those not engaged in trade. 

Light money and alien tonnage tax. — In addition to the regular 
tonnage used, light money at the rate of 50 cents per net ton and an 
aUen tonnage tax of the same amount are, with certain infrequent 
exceptions, imposed at each entry thereof into the ports of the United 
States upon vessels of countries with which the United States has no 
commercial treaty and upon vessels not exempted by presidential 
proclamation, except that upon foreign-owned vessels built in the 
United States the alien tonnage tax is 30 cents per ton. An alien 
tonnage tax of 50 cents per ton is also imposed upon vessels of Ameri- 
can registry carrying one or more foreign officers. 

Consular charges, port of Philadelphia, Pa. 





BiUof 
lading cer- 
tification. 


Consular invoice. 


Bill of 
health. 


Crew 
list. 


Clear- 
ance 
papers. 


Certificate 
of origin. 




Consul. 


Blanks. 


Certifi- 
cation. 


other fees. 


Argentine Re- 
public 


(') 






$5.20 


$5.20 






(^) 


Austria ' 




















$2.66 


$2.00 





$0.20 




Bolivia 


$0.50 
$1.38 each. 

$1.25 


/(5) $i. 25 
\(6) $1. 50 


\3%ofto- 

/talvalue. 

$2.20 

$0.30 






$3.30 

$1.25 
per 100. 


$3.30 


$2.20 


Certificate 
Number 
of cargo 
$3.30. 




Chile 






China' 












Columbia 






3% of to- 
tal value. 






























$1.00 




See re- 
marks. 


























Dominican Re- 


















France 






$2.40 
3% of 
value. 


.. 






$4.00 




Guatemala 


$1.00 


(5) 10.35 























General cargo, $2.60; full cargo, $11.70. 
' Passenger list, $2.60; any other, $5.20. 



• No consular documents requir'id. 

* No consular charges. 



50 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Consular charges, port of Philadelphia, Pa. — Continued. 





BiUof 
lading cer- 
tification. 


Consular invoice. 


Bill of 
health. 


Crew 
list. 


Clear- 
ance 
papers. 


Certificate 
of origin. 




Consul. 


Blanks. 


Certifi- 
cation. 


Other fees. 




























$4.72 








(«) 




$1.00 


(5) $0.50 


2% of 
value. 








Italy 


$3.86 




$3.86 






Japan * 












Mexico 




(4) $0.10 


3% of 
value. 












Netherlands 




$1.00 










Nicaragua 


$3.00 


$0.50 


See re- 
marks. 
























$3.00 
$2.00 


(7) $0.50 


9/10 of 1% 
of value. 


























(4) $6.30 


2% of 
value. 










Persia* 






























San Salvador 




(5) $0.25 


2% of 
value. 










of number 
cargo $14.85 


Sweden 3 














Switzerland ^ 


















Uruguay 

Venezuela 


$1.25 












$0.63 


Value of 




l%of 
value. 








parcel post 
$1.25. 



















s No consular documents required. 
* No consular charges. 



6 No consular charges at present time. 
5 Legalization of signature, $2.38. 



Argentine Republic: Manifest charge 2 cents per ton up to 2,000 tons; 1 cent per ton over 2 000 tons, with 
surtax of 30 per cent for first Argentine port. For extra ports 1 cent per ton plus 30 per cent. Port of call 
1 cent per ton to 2,000 tons; i cent per ton over 2,000 tons with surtax of 30 per cent. 

Brazil: Manifest charges, to 500 tons, $20.60; 501 to 1,000 tons, $22.75; 1,001 to 1,500 tons, $28.83; 1,500 to 
2,000 tons,$33.33; 2,000 to 2,500 tons, $37.15; 2,500 to 3,000 tons, $41.25; 3,000 to 3,.500 tons, $45.38. In excess of 
3,500 tons, $). 00275 per ton In addition to above. 

Cuba: Consular in voice charges, value $5 to $50, $0.50; $50 to $200, $2; over $200, $2 plus 10 cents per each $100. 

Italy: Man fest charges, $3.86. 

Nicaragua: Consular invoice charges, value less than $100, $2.50; $100 to $200, $3; $200 to $500, $5; $500 and 
over, $1 per each $100. 

Portugal: Manifest charge, $3.50. 

FUEL AND SUPPLIES. 



ELECTRIC CURRENT. 

Electric current for power and lighting is supplied by the Phila- 
delphia Electric Co. There is sufficient current to meet all demands 
for power and lighting. Direct current of 110 to 220 volts and 
alternating current of 110 to 220 volts, 3-phase, 60-cycle, are supplied. 

Information regarding electric current at the various wharves and 
piers of the port is given in the table showing data relative to piers, 
wharves, docks, etc. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

The supply of pure water both for drinking purposes and for use 
in boilers is unlimited. Vessels may fill their boilers from the river 
anywhere in the harbor. Water boats will supply vessels in stream 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 51 

or at piers that have no water connections. The charge is $1.25 per 
ton. When vessels are suppHed with water at piers that have pipe 
connections with the city water main the cost is from 50 cents to 
$1 per ton. The city itself makes no charges for water supplied 
vessels, and the rates mentioned are those assessed by occupants of 
the piers. 

Information regarding water supply at the various wharves and 
piers of the port is given in the table showing data relative to piers, 
wharves, docks, etc. 

BALLAST. 

Sand, rock, stone, gravel, and cinder ballast is obtainable in suflPi- 
cient quantities to take care of all demands. The charge for re- 
moving sand ballast is from $1.30 to $1.50 per ton. The following 
are some of the concerns prepared to furnish ballast: 

O. Belleni 604 Bourse Building, at Pier No. 38, 

south wharves. 

M. Cappollino & Son 41 Drexel Building. 

J. A. Corcoran & Co 1026 Drexel Building. 

Delaware Dredging Co Third and Walnut Streets. 

John Grau's Sons Girard Point. 

Independent Pier Co Pier No. 34, south wharves; also Piers 28 

and 35, south wharves. 

PROVISIONS. 

The city is well supplied with provisions of all kinds in any quantity 
required by vessels. 

OIL BUNKERING. 

There are facilities at Point Breeze and Petty Island in the harbor 
of Philadelphia and at Paulsboro, N. J., Chester, Pa., Marcus Hook, 
Pa., and Claymont, Del., for supplying oil-burning vessels with fuel. 
The plant of the Atlantic Refining Co., located below Passyunk Avenue 
bridge, on the west side of the Schuylkill River, has a capacity of 
220,000 barrels, and includes 13 steel storage tanks; the Gulf Re- 
fining Co.'s plant, wliich is located on the west side of the Schuylkill 
River, at the foot of Fifty-sixth Street, has a capacity of 300,000 
barrels and has 25 steel storage tanks; and the plant of the Crew- 
Levick Co., which is located on the upper end of Petty Island, has 
a capacity of 110,000 barrels and two storage tanks. 

Many of the oil-burning vessels are bunkered from oil barges. 
Wliile the cost of obtaining oil from the barges is fractionally higher 
per gallon than the cost of obtaining it at the loading heads of the 
oil companies, the former method has a number of important ad- 
vantages. It enables the ship to take her fuel while loading or dis- 
charging cargo, thus effecting a saving of time at the port. Vessels 
proceeding to the refineries on Schuylkill River for cargo will take 
bunlj^er oil at the same time, but the use of from two to four tugs is 



52 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



necessary to reach these plants, and the expense is not warranted for 
bunker purposes alone. Many vessels take fuel oil on the outward 
trip at Paulsboro, N. J., Chester, Pa., Marcus Hook, Pa., and Claymont, 
Del. 

The extensive facilities of the several important companies lo- 
cated along the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers insure an adequate 
supply of fuel oil for the use of vessels at all times. 

Fuel oil facililies . 



The Atlantic Refining Co. 



The Gulf Refining Co. 



Crew-Levick Co. 



Storage facilities— Tanks: 
Location 

Number of tanks 

Type of construction 
Total storage capacity 

(barrels). 
Intake pipe lines 

(number and size). 
Supply: 

Source of supply 

How received 

Grades 

Quantity kept in 
stock- 
Maximum (bar- 
rels). 
Normal (barrels). 
Bunkering faciUties: 
Location 



Type and construc- 
tion. 

Depth of water, mean 

low water. 
Bunkering capacity 

(barrels per hour). 
Discharge pipe Unes 

(number and size). 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) . . . . 
Number of holes in 

flanges. 
Barges: 

Total number 

Towed or self-pru- 

pelled. 
Carrying capacity 

(barrels). 

Bunkering capacity 
(barrels per hour). 

Method of delivery 
of oil to vessels. 

Hose (size) 

Totallength 

Connections (size) 

Number of holes in 

flanges 

Remarks 



Below Passyunk Ave- 
nue bridge, west side 
of Schuylkill River, 
Philadelphia. 

13. 



Foot of Fifty-eighth 
Street, Schuylkill 
River, west side, 
Philadelphia. 



Steel . . . 
220,000. 



(1,12-inch; 5,8-inch).. 



Texas and Mexican oil 
fields. 

steamships and pipe 

lines. 
All commerical and 

Admiralty grades. 



Steel 

300,000 

8 (4, 6-lnch; 4, 4-inch) . . 

Texas oilfields 

Barges and steamships. 
26 and 16 gravity , 



220,000. 



Below Passyunk Ave- Foot of Fifty-eighth 
nue bridge, west side Street, Schuylkill 
of Schuylkill River, 1 River, west s i d 



Philadelphia. 
Timber platform on 

timber piUng, earth 

fill, concrete retaining 

wall. 
25 feet 



6,500. 



7 (1, 12-inch; 1, 16-inch; 
5, 8-inch). 

6-inch 

25 and 50 feet 

6-inch 



2 self-propeUiiig; 9 towed. 

2, 3,400 each; 1, 3,600; 
3, 4,000 each; 3, 5,600 
each; 1, 3,000; and 1, 
5,700. 

Not known 



6-inch 

25 and 50 feet. 
6-inch 



Size of barrels, 50 gallons. 



Philadelphia. 
Timber cnb on timber 
piUug, earth fill. 



1,000 

8 (4, 6-inch; 4,4-inch). 



4-inch and 6-inch. 

25 and 50 feet 

4-iuch and 6-inch. 
6 and 8 



3 

Towed. 



, 2,500; 
9,000. 



6-inch 

25 feet 

4-inch and 6-inch. 



6 and 8 

Size of barrels, 42 gallons 



On upper end of Pettys 
Island, Philadelphia, 



Steel tanks, timber roof 
110,000. 



1 (4-inch). 



Pennsylvania, Mid-con- 
tinent, and Mexican 
oil fields. 

Tank cars and tank 
steamships. 

All commercial and 
Admiralty grades. 



110,000. 
55,000. 



Upper end of Pettys 
Island, Philadelphia. 



Timber platform o a 
timber pihng, earth 
flU, concrete retaining 



2 (1, 4-inch; 1, 12-inch). 

4-inch and various. 

25 feet. 

4-inch and various. 

6. 



Size of barrels, 42 galloni 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



53 



Ftiel oil facilities — Continued. 



Vacuum Oil Co. 



Crew-Levick Co. 



Storage facilities— tanks: 
Location 

Number of tanks 

Type of constraction. 

Total storage capacity 

(barrels). 
Intake pipe lines 

(number and size). 
Supply: 

Source of supply , 

How received , 

Grades 



Quantity kept in 
stock — 
Maximum (bar- 
rels). 
Normal (barrels). 
Bunkering facilities: 

Location 



and construc- 



Depth of water, mean 

low water. 

Bunkering capacity 

(barrels per hour). 

Discharge pipe lines 

(number and size). 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) 

Number of holes 
in flanges. 



Barges: 

Total number 

Towed or self-pro- 
pelled. 
Carrying capacity 

(barrels). 
Bunkering capacity 
(barrels per hoiu). 
Method of deUvery of 
oil to vessels. 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) 

Number of holes 
in flanges. 
Remarks , 



Paulsboro, N.J 

32 

Steel tanks, steel and 

timber roofs. 
118,500 

2(12-inch) 

Texas, Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, and 
Mexico. 

Tank ships and pipe 
Unes. 

All commercial grades. . 



Foot of Booth Street, 

Chester, Pa. 

2 

Steel tanks and timber 

roof. 
110,000 

2(8-inch) 

Pennsylvania, Mid-con- 
tinent, and Mexican 
oil fields. 

Tank cars and tank 
steamships. 

AU commercial and 
Admiralty grades. 



110,000. 
35,000.. 



Paulsboro, N.J 

Timber piling, timber 
platform, earth fill 
concrete retaining wall 



Foot of Booth Street, 

Chester, Pa. 
Timber deck on timber 

piling at low water 

earth fill, and timber 

crib. 



33 feet 

2,000 

2 (8-inch). 



8-inch. 
16 feet. 
8-inch. 



20 feet 

1,200 

1 (8-inch). 



6-inch. 
30 feet. 
6-inch. 
6 



Size of barrels, 42 gallons. 



Size of barrels, 4? gallons. 
Emergency station 
only. 



Marcus Hook, Pa. 



Steel tanks; steel and 

timber roofs. 
175,000. 

3 (2, 8-inch; 1, 10-inch). 



South Texas, Arkansas, 
and Mexican oil fields. 



ps. 

27-28 gravity, Texas; 
22-24 gravity, Arkan- 
sas; 15-16 gravity, 
Mexico. 



100,000. 

Marcus Hook, Pa. 

(1) Timber deck on tim- 
ber piling. (2) Timber 
deck on timber piling 
at low water, concrete 
retaining wall, earth 
fiU. 

30 feet. 

1,000. 

3 (2, 8-inch; 1, 10-inch). 

6-inch. 
25 feet. 
6-inch. 
6. 



Towed. 

1, 2,400; 1, 1,600; 1, 7,500. 



Electricity. 

2, 4-inch; 1, 6-inch 

25 feet. 

2, 4-inch; 1, 6-inch. 



Size of barrels, 42 gallons. 



54 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Fuel oil facilities — Continued. 



Pure OU Co. 



Union Petroleum Co. The Atlantic Refining Ca 



Storage facilities— tanks: 

Location 

Number of tanks 

Typeofconstraction. 

Total storage capacity 

(barrels). 
Intake pipe lines 

(number and size). 
Supply: 

Source of supply 

How received 

Grades 

Quantity kept in 
stock- 
Maximum (bar- 
rels). 
Normal (barrels) - 
Bunkering facilities: 

Location 

Type and construc- 
tion. 

Depth of water, mean 

low water. 

Bunkering capacity 

(barrels per hour). 

Discharge pipe lines 

(number and size). 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) . . . 
Number of holes 
in flanges. 
Barges: 

Total number 

Towed or self-pro- 
pelled. 
Carrying capacity 

(barrels). 
Bunkering capacity 
(barrels per hour). 
Method of delivery of 
oil to vessels. 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) . . . 
Number of holes 
in flanges. 
Remarks 



Marcus Hook, Pa 

3 

Steel tanks, timber roof; 

1 steel roof. 
165,000 

3 (4-inch) 

Pennsylvania, West Vir- 
ginia, and Oklahoma 
oil fields. 

Pipelines 

34 to 36 specific gravity. 

165,000 

55,000 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Timber deck on timber 
piling. 

25 feet 

1,000 

3 (1, 10-inch; 2,6-inch) . . 

6-inch 

loandSOfeet 

6-inch 

6 

1 

Towed 

6,500 

350 

Ste 

4-inch 

SOfeet 

4-inch 

6 

Size of barrels, 42 gallons 



Marcus Hook, Pa 

15 

Steel 

266,400 

7 (1, 10-inch; 3, 8-inch; 
1,6-inc.h; 2, 4-Lnch). 

Pennsylvania, Texas, 
and Mexico oil fields. 

Tank ships and tank cars 

Bunker oil, commercial 

and U. S. Navy special. 

266,400 

50,000 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Timber deck on timber 
piUng, concrete retain- 
ing wall, earth fill con- 
crete deck. 

28 feet 

2,000 

7(1, 10-inch; 3, 8-inch; 
1,6-inch; 2,4-inch). 

4-inch and 6-inch 

SOfeet 

4-inch and 6-inch 

6 

3 

Towed 

1,9,000; 2, 1,7.50 each 

1,1,500: 2, 875 each 

Steam 

6-inch and 4-inch 

30feet 

6-inch and 4-inch 

6 

Size of barrels, 42 gallons. 



Claymont, Del. 

6. 

Steel tanks, timber roof. 

110,000. 

6 (8-mch). 



Company's plant at 
Point Breeze, Phila- 
delphia. 

Barges. 

All commercial and Ad- 
miralty grades. 



Emergency storage only. 



Claymont, Del. 
Concrete crib, ei 



6 (6-ineh). 

6-inch. 
25 feet. 
6- inch. 
6. 



Same barges used for all 
plants. 



Size of barrels, 50 gallons. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Fuel oil facilities — Continued. 



55 



The Texas Co. 



Pure Oil Co. 



Storage facilities— tanks: 
Location 

Number of tanis 

Type of construction.. 
Total storage capacity 

(barrels). 
Intake pipe lines 

(number and size). 
Supply: 

Source of supply 

How received 

Grades 

Quantity kept in 
stock- 
Maximum (bar- 
rels). 
Normal (barrels).. 
Bunkering facilities: 

Location 

Type and construction 

Depth of v.ater, mean 

low water. 

Bunkering capacity 

(barrels per hour). 

Discharge pipe lines 

(number and size). 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) 

Number of holes 
in flanges. 
Barges: 

Total number 

Towed or self-pro- 
pelled. 
Carrying capacity 

(barrels). 
Bunkering capacity 
(barrels per hour). 
Method of delivery of 
oil to vessels. 

Hose (size) 

Total length 

Connections (size) . . . . 
Number of holes 
in flanges. 



Claymont, Del. 



Mouth of Brandywine 
Creek, Wilmington, 
Del. 



Steel. 
220... 



2 (1,6-inch; 1,8-inch). 



Texas and Mexican oil 
fields. 



Tank steamers 

All coromercial grades.. . 



2 (1,4-inch; 1,3-inch)... 



Pennsylvania, West Vir- 
ginia, and Oklahoma 
oil fields. 

Pipelines 

34 to 36 specific gravity.. 



150,000 

75,000 

Claymont, Del. 



None. 
None. 



Timber deck on timber 

piling. 
16 to 30 feet 



Mouth of Brandy^vine 
Creek, Wilmington, 
Del. 

Timber deck on timber 
piling. 

15 feet 



1,200 

2 (1,6-inch; l,&-inch). 



4-inch and 6-inch. 

30 feet 

6-inch 



25 , 

1 (2-inch). 
None 



Towed. 
5,000... 



2-inch. 
4 



1,200.. 

Steam. 

6-inch. 
30 feet. 
6-inch. 



Size of barrels, 42 gallons. 



Size of barrels, 42 gallons 



Third and Commerce 
Streets, Wilmington, 
Del. 

2. 

Steel. 

527,000. 

2 (1,6-inch; 1,4-inch). 
Marcus Hook, Pa. 



14 and 16 gravity. 

12,600. 
6,000. 

Third and Commerce 
Streets, Wilmington, 
Del. 

Timber crib bulkhead. 

4 feet. 

1,000. 

2 (1,6-inch; 1,4-inch). 

6-inch and 4-inch. 

30 feet. 

6-inch and 4-inch. 

6. 

None. 



Size of barrels, 42 gallons. 



56 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Fuel oil facilities — Continued. 



The Atlantic Refining Co. 



The Atlantic Refining Co. 



Storage facilities- 
Tanks: 
Location 



Number of tanks 

Type of construction 

Total storage capac- 
ity (barrels). 

Intake pipe lines 
(number and size). 

)ly: 

source of supply 



Supply: 
Sou: 



How received. 
Grades 



Quantity kept in 
stock- 
Maximum (bar- 
rels). 
Normal (barrels) 



Foot of Commerce Street, 
Wilmington, Del. 

1. 

Steel tank, terra cotta 
brick facing on outside. 

6,500. 

1,6-inch. 



Company's plant at 
Pomt Breeze, Philadel- 
phia. 

Barges. 

15 and 18 gravity, Mex- 



6,500. 
500. 



Bunkering facilities: 
Location 

Type and construc- 
tion. 
Depth of water, 

mean low water. 

Bunkering capacity 

(barrels per hour). 

Discharge pipe lines 

(number and size), 

Hose (size) 

Total length.... 
Connections (size).. 
Number of holes 
in flanges. 
Barges: 

Total number 

Method of delivery 
of oil to 



Foot of Commerce Street, 
Wilmington , Del. 

Timber deck on timber 
piling. 

2 feet. 

1,200. 

1,6-inch. 

6-inch. 
30 feet. 
6-inch. 
6. 



Same barges used for all 

plants. 
Steam. 

Size of barrels, 50 gallons. 



COAL BUNKERING, 



At the Port of Philadelphia there are at least five companies en- 
gaged in bunkering vessels with coal; the Philadelphia and Reading 
Railway, The Eastern Coal Dock Co., Estate of M. Howlett, Dela- 
ware River Discharging Co. and the Geo. B. Newton Coal Co. 

The Philadelphia and Reading Railway bunkers tugs and small 
vessels at its Port Richmond coal pier. Gondola cars are run onto 
the piers and the coal dumped into hoppers under the tracks and 
thence through chutes into the ship's bunkers. 

The port is well supplied with floating coal holsters which are ex- 
tensively used for bunkering. The coal is handled from barges 
alongside the ship in buckets of one to two ton capacity. Practically 
all vessels take bunker coal at their regular berths while loading cargo. 

Detailed information regarding the bunkering facilities of the port 
is given in the accompanying table. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 





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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 61 

PORT AND HARBOR FACILITIES. 

PIERS, WHARVES, AND DOCKS. 

The water front of the port of Philadelphia is extensively devel- 
oped, and there are railroad connections with practically all of the 
important piers. There are in all 399 wharves and bulkheads, in- 
cluding those on the west side of the Delaware at Philadelphia, the 
Schuylkill River from the mouth to Fairmount Dam, the east side 
of the Delaware at Camden and Gloucester, and those at Chester 
and Marcus Hook, Pa. 

West side of the Delaware River at Philadelphia, including 
Petty Island. — There are 197 wharves and bulkheads, which have 
depths of water ranging from 5 to 35 feet at mean low tide. 

Along this water front are located the Port Richmond terminals of 
the Philadelphia & Reading Railway, with grain, ore, and coal han- 
dling faciUties; numerous municipal piers, many of which have been 
leased to steamship and railroad companies; Cramp's Shipyard, 
Kensington Shipyard, large sugar concerns, the Philadelphia Quar- 
termaster Terminal, the Greenwich Coal Piers, and the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard at League Island. 

East side of Delaware River opposite Philadelphia. — There 
are 89 piers and bulkheads along this water front, with water depths 
of from 5 to 35 feet. A number of these improvements are used by 
the following shipbuilding and repair plants: Camden Shipbuilding 
Co., John H. Mathis, Quigley & Dorp, Delaware Shipbuilding & 
Repair Corporation, and the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. 

Scliuylkill River. — On this river between its mouth and Fair- 
mount Dam are 70 wharves and bulkheads. The depth of the water 
alongside of the piers is from 3 to 32 feet. Close to the mouth of this 
river is located the Girard Point terminal of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, with its modern grain elevator. Farther up the river at Point 
Breeze are located the Atlantic Refining Co. and the Gulf Refining 
Co., where fuel is supplied to oil-burning vessels. 

MUNICIPAL PIERS. 

The port of Philadelphia has taken a leading position among the 
important Atlantic ports in providing piers adequate to the needs of 
modern shippmg. This statement has particular reference to the 
new Moyamensing group of piers. One of the piers of this group, 
No. 78, has already been completed and is in operation. It is two 
decked, of sufficient length to accommodate four ships. A photo- 
graph and plan of this pier are printed in this report. There is a cen- 
tral depressed wagon way with a track on each side, and there is also 
a depressed track on each apron. This pier and smaller piers of 
somewhat similar type have been equipped with cargo hoists and 



62 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

dock winches, but the latter have been generally discarded and sole 
reUance is placed upon the ship's tackle. The new piers, Nos. 82 
and 84 of the Moyamensing group, now under construction, will be 
wider than No. 78 and will have three tracks through the center of 
the transit shed. The third track has been found necessary to enable 
cars to be spotted in proper locations for serving ships at the outer 
berths. All tracks are depressed. While an important purpose of 
the tracks on the apron is to faciUtate direct loading of heavy mate- 
rial from car to ship, it has been found in practice that these tracks 
are more generally used for carrying freight to and from the transit 
sheds, acting in an auxiliary capacity to the inside tracks. The 
plan of having a separate depressed wagon way obviates the conges- 
tion and inconvenience which generally results when teams and trucks 
are allowed access to the cargo deck. 

On piers where apron tracks are built the foundation and super- 
structure have been designed for the future installation of cranes of 
the semiportal type, in the event of their use being warranted. The 
new, two-deck municipal pier equipment includes cargo masts, con- 
sisting of extensions of the outside columns of the pier shed up above 
the roof to an elevation of approximately 75 feet above the water 
level, at which elevation they are connected together with girders. 

The earUer municipal piers, of which Nos. 38 and 40 of the South- 
wark group are examples, are less efficient than the new piers of the 
Moyamensing group. They have two tracks through the center of 
the shed but none upon the apron, and the width of the apron is some- 
what too restricted for convenient handling of the draft. These are 
two-berth piers and their width is correspondingly less. It must be 
borne m mind that Philadelphia is a river port and that the maximum 
lengths of its piers are governed by the physical conditions as offi- 
cially reflected in the position of the pierhead lines. While the best 
modern practice favors piers of considerable length and width for 
accommodating ocean shipping, there are frequently circumstances 
connected with the use and operation of the pier which cause smaller 
units to be preferred. At Philadelphia the New York plan of leasing 
the piers to steamship and railroad companies is in force. The city 
reserves the right, however, to reassign rented space if necessary, 
with reimbursement to the lessee by the temporary assignee. Most 
of the piers are rented at rates varying from 25 cents to 40 cents per 
square foot. It is an advantage to a steamship company to have the 
fidl use of one pier, and where its needs are not sufficient to require 
so much space one-half of the pier is often leased to one company 
and the other half to another. The new Moyamensing piers are well 
adapted to the use of two companies; in fact, the upper side of No. 78 
is now leased to the Luckenbach Lme and the lower side to the Bal- 
timore & Ohio Railroad; but the space is already proving insufficient 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 63 

for the needs of the former. Smce the city does not ordinarily oper- 
ate its piers, the problem presented is to provide units of proper size 
for one or two lines, and it would seem that the department of 
wharves, docks, and ferries has successfully solved this problem. 
Were the city able to operate its piers, a different proposition would 
be presented, with the probabihty that larger units would be prefer- 
able if sites could be found where they would not be prohibited by 
navigation considerations. 

RAILROAD TERMINALS. 

Port Richmond Terminal (Ref. No. 27 to 48, inclusive) .—The 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway owns all piers at this location. 
There are seven coal piers which are equipped with trestles and 
chutes for loading coal on vessels; one grain elevator pier equipped 
with grain chutes, unloaders, dryers, etc.; two ore piers, one of 
which is equipped with two electrically driven ore unloaders, with a 
capacity of 300 to 500 tons per hour; and five general cargo piers- 
Greenwich Point Terminal— Pennsylvania Railroad (Ref. 
No. 174 to 180, inclusive). — There are seven piers belonging to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad at Greenwich Point, of which five are in 
use. Three are coal piers with mechanical equipment including a 
car dumper with a capacity of 3,000 tons per hour and a thawing 
plant with a capacity of 21 cars; two piers are used for handling 
railroad ties and lumber. 

Girard Point Terminal — Pennsylvania Railroad (Ref. No. 
500 to 503, inclusive). — The Pennsylvania Railroad owns four piers 
at this point, three of which are in use. Pier No. 1 is used for han- 
dling ore and is equipped with two steam ore unloaders with a 
capacity of 125 tons per hour each. These unloaders run on a wide 
gauge track between the rails of which are two railroad tracks. 
Cars placed beneath the unloader's hopper are filled through chutes 
by gravity. The hopper is filled by means of a bucket which lifts the 
ore from the vessel's hold. The ore is then conveyed along a hori- 
zontal track to the hopper. Pier No. 2 is used for handling bulk 
cargo and is equipped with a 40-ton locomotive crane, and two three- 
ton movable hoisting engines. Pier No. 3 is used for handling grain 
in connection with the Pennsylvania Railroad's 2,225,000-bushel 
grain elevator. 

LIST OP PIERS AND WHARVES. 

Below will be found a list of the important terminals at the port 
of Philadelphia. In the column showing whether the tenninal is 
open to the public is written ''yes" or "no." In all cases where 
"yes" is shown reference should be made to the list of piers, wharves. 



64 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



and docks for information relative to the conditions under which 
vessels may dock. On some piers operated by railroads it is re- 
quired that a certam proportion of cargo move over their lines 
while others may be used by paying a wharfage or dockage charge. 
The latter condition applies to the majority of private piers. 

PIERS FOR OVERSEAS TRADE— GENERAL CARGO. 



Refer- 
ence 
No. 


Pier No. 


Used or operated by- 


Open 

toaU 

carriers. 


Ill 


9, north . . 


United Fruit Co 


No. 


104 


19, north 




Yes. 


103 


24, north , 


Philadelphia & Reading Ry 


Yes. 


102 


25, north 


do 


Yes. 


101 




do 


Yes. 


32 


A, Port Richmond 


do 


Yes. 


30 


C Port Richmond . . 


do... . 


Yes. 


29 




do 


Yes. 


28 


G, Port Richmond 


do . . 


Yes. 


27 


H, Port Richmond 


do 


Yes. 


124 






No. 


130 


28, south 


Independent Pier Co 


Yes. 


131 




do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 


133 


35, south . .. 


do 


Yes. 


135 




Furness Withy & Co 


Yes. 


136 


40, south 


Societe Nazionale di Navigozione & J. A. 

McCarthy. 
Southern Steamship Co 


Yes. 


137 


40 south 


No. 


138 






Yes. 


140 


53 south 


do 


Yes. 


141 


55 south 


do 


Yes. 


143 






Yes. 


160 


78, south 


Luckenbach Steamship Co. & Baltimore 
& Oliio R. R. 


Yes. 


168 




Yes. 








Yes. 


350 


Spruce Street Pier 


City of Camden 


Yes. 











PIERS FOR COASTWISE TRADE— GENERAL CARGO. 



114 


3 north . . 


City of Philadelphia 


Yes. 


110 


10 north 


do . 


Yes. 








Yes. 


103 


24 north 


Philadelphia & Reading Ry 


Yes. 


102 


25 north 


do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 


30 


C Port Richmond 


do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 


^7 


H Port Richmond 


do . 


Yes. 








No. 


125 


18 20 south 


Merchants & Miners Transportation Co — 
do 


No. 


127 


24 south 


Yes. 
















Yes. 


132 


34 south 


do 


Yes. 


133 




do 


Yes. 








Yes. 


136 




Societe Nazionale di Navigozione & J. A. 
McCarthy. 


Yes. 


137 




No. 


138 


48 south 


International Mercantile Marine 


Yes. 


140 


53 south 


do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 


142 


56 south 


Pennsylvania R. R 


Yes. 


143 


57 south 


do 


Yes. 


160 


78, south 


Luclcenbafh Steamship Co. & Baltimore 

& OhioR.R. 
United States Shipping Board 


Yes. 


168 


96 south 


Yes. 


169 




do 


Yes. 


350 






Yes. 











THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
PIERS FOR INLAND CARRIERS— GENERAL CARGO. 



65 



Refer- 
ence 
No. 


Pier No. 


Used or operated by- 


Open 

to all 

carriers. 


723 


Third Street Wharf 




Yes. 


718 


Shipley Street Bulkhead 


Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Wihnington 

City of Chester... 




624 


City of Chester 


Yes. 


113 


4 north 


City of Philadelphia 


Yes. 











RAILROAD WATER FRONT FREIGHT STATION AND CAR FLOAT PIERS. 



12, north 

13, north 

14, north 

40, north 

49 and 50, north. 

8,soutli 

9, south 

10-11, south 

14, south 

22, south 

36, south 



Baltimore & Ohio R. R 

Pennsylvania R. R 

do 

Baltimore & Ohio R . R 

Pennsylvania R. R 

Philadelphia & Reading Ry. 

do 

Pennsylvania R. R 

do 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R 

Philadelphia & Reading Ry. 



GRAIN PIERS. 


31 






Yes. 


502 






Yes. 










LUMBER PIERS. 


92 


37-38, north 




United States Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion. 


Yes 




179, north 




Yes. 












ORE PIERS. 



14, Port Richmond. 
13, Port Richmond . 
1, Girard Point 



Philadelphia & Reading Ry. 

do 

Pennsylvania R. R , 



COAL PIERS. 









Yes. 


47 


16, Port Richmond 


do. 


Yes. 


44 


do 


Yes. 


43 




do 


Yes. 






do 


Yes. 


41 


9, Port Richmond 


do 


Yes. 


40 




do 


Yes. 








Yes. 


176 


108, South Greenwich 


.. do 


Yes. 


177 


109, South Greenwich 


do 


Yes. 









MISCELLANEOUS CARGO PIERS. 



98 


31 north 


Terminal Warehouse & Transfer Co 


Yes. 


96 




Yes. 








Yes. 


93 


36, north 


do 


Yes. 


86 


45 north 


J W. Paxon Co 


Yes. 


77 






Yes. 


76 


56, north . . .... 


Columbia Avenue Pier Co 


Yes. 


65 


7' north 


Hughes & Patterson 


Yes. 


64 






Yes. 


155 


70, south 


Baugh & Sons 


Yes. 


156 


72 south 


do 


Yes. 


157 






Yes. 


325 




City of Gloucester 


Yes. 


501 


2 . . 


Pennsylvania R R 


Yes. 


643 






Yes. 


650 


Sun Oil Co. pier 


Sun Oil Co., Marcus Hook, Pa 




651 


do 


do 


Yes. 


652 


do 


do 


Yes. 











66 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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242 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

GRAIN ELEVATORS. 

There are two water-front grain elevators now in use at this port. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Co.'s elevator at Girard Point is located 
about 200 feet inland from the dock. It is a fire-proof structure of 
reinforced concrete on pUe foundation. The storage facilities com- 
prise 177 circular tanks and 143 interstice tanks having a combined 
capacity of 2,225,000 bushels. The grain is transferred from cars to 
elevator at the rate of 25,000 bushels per hour, and is delivered to ships 
or lighters by means of a conveyor gallery 1,200 feet long, containing 
four conveyor belts, operated by electricity, each having a capacity of 
15,000 bushels per hour or a total of 60,000 bushels. The gallery has 
17 spouts placed 60 feet apart which can deliver to either side of the 
pier. The conveyor belts in this gallery originate under the working 
house, so that it is possible to weigh 100,000 bushels of grain in 
advance, and ship it without reelevation. On one side of the gallery 
there is docking room for a vessel 450 feet long, and on the other side 
of the gallery the slip is 900 feet long and will accommodate two such 
vessels, thus making it practicable to load three vessels simultane- 
ously. Twelve of the spouts are on the lower and five on the upper 
side of the gallery. The yard will accommodate 1,400 cars, and 240 
cars can be unloaded in one day of 10 hours. 

At Pier B, Port Richmond, the Philadelphia Grain Elevator Co. 
operates an elevator with a capacity of 1,200,000 bushels. Grain is 
removed from cars to hoppers served by vertical elevators of the con- 
tinuous-motion bucket type. The elevator has 24 chutes and grain 
is transferred from ships to the granary at the rate of 50,000 bushels 
per hour and from the granary to lighters at the rate of 10,000 bushels 
per hour. This plant is operated by steam and the building is of 
timber frame with corrugated iron sides. 

There are four floating grain elevators at the port, two of which are 
operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and two by the Philadelphia 
Harbor Transfer. Both of the Pennsylvania Railroad elevators are 
the endless-chain bucket type. One is operated by an SS-horsepower 
steam engine and has a capacity of 5,000 bushels per hour from barge 
to vessel, while the other is operated by a 150-horsepower steam 
engine and has a capacity of 10,000 bushels per hour. One of the 
elevators of the Philadelphia Harbor Transfer Co. has a capacity of 
10,000 bushels per hour for loading grain from a barge to a vessel and 
the other a capacity of 12,000 bushels per hour. More detailed infor- 
mation regarding these floating elevators will be found under the 
heading ' 'Floating equipment." 

In practically every case where grain is carried in less than full 
cargo lots the loading is done by floating grain elevators whfle the 
ship is taking on other cargo. 



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THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 243 

The elevator facilities arc entirely inadequate properly to take care 
of the grain trade of the port. At the time of the visit of representa- 
tives of this office, the Girard Point elevator was full, and it was stated 
that about 2,000 cars were held in the yards awaiting an opportunity to 
unload. At the Port Richmond elevator it was learned that a short 
time previously about 1,700 cars were similarly held because of insuf- 
ficient storage facilities. Neither of these elevators serves piers used 
for general cargo purposes, and their use for direct loading is conse- 
quently restricted largely to tramps taking full cargoes. Liners taking 
grain at their usual berths are loaded by floating elevators without 
additional cost, but this method is less convenient than having proper 
facilities directly at the pier. Philadelphia needs more regular lines 
affording direct service and should make every effort to meet the 
demands of this class of service. Grain is valuable dead-weight cargo 
for liners, and its availability at the piers occupied by liners should 
aid in attracting new lines to the port. 

If the port of Philadelphia should be able in the future to operate 
its terminals, it is believed that the establishment of an elevator, as 
part of the Moyamensing development, with galleries serving each 
of the piers of this group, would be desirable. 

STORAGE WAREHOUSES. 

The port of Philadelphia is v/ell equipped with warehouse facilities 
for handling a large export and import business. The warehouses 
as a rule do not form part of the terminal development, but are sepa- 
rate establishments without physical connection with the piers. 
There are numerous warehouse companies which handle both cold 
storage and general storage, in addition to the transit sheds at the 
railroad terminals. The private warehouses best adapted for general 
storage purposes are handicapped by the competition of railroad 
terminals, which absorb in the line-haul rate expenses which private 
warehouses must meet from the revenue of the warehouse itself. 

Storage rates at railroad terminals are included in that section of 
this report devoted to raih'oads. The rates in effect at private ware- 
houses vary with the commodities. Details regarding storage ware- 
houses available to the public are given in the following tables: 



244 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 245 

DRY DOCKS AND MARINE RAILWAYS. 

There are 4 graving docks, 2 floating docks, and 2 marine railways 
at Philadelphia. The largest dry dock is located at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard. There are 4 marine railways and 2 floating dry docks 
at Camden,! floating dry dock at Chester, and 2 marine railways 
and 1 graving dock at Wilmington. A full description of these 
facilities is given in the accompanying tables. 

During normal times there is a shortage of dry-dock facilities at 
this port. With the exception of the dry docks at the navy yard, 
there is only 1 graving dock at Philadelphia and neighboring locali- 
ties of sufficient capacity for docking a ship 350 feet long. This is 
the dry dock of the William Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building 
Co., which has a length of 422 feet 4 inches. 

Of the 5 floating dry docks available only 1 is capable of accommo- 
dating a ship 300 feet long. The single exception is the floating dry 
dock of the Sun Shipbuilding Co, at Chester, which has a lifting 
capacity of 10,000 tons and length over all of 522 feet. 

The port has a number of marine railways suitable for hauling out 
the smaller types of vessels, but these do not meet the needs of those 
engaged in overseas trade. 

The criticism of the dry-dock facilities at Philadelphia is one which 
has equal application to many other important American ports. In 
this connection it is deemed pertinent to publish m this report a list 
of the privately owned graving docks, floating docks, and marine 
railways in operation and under construction in the United States on 
April 15, 1923. The list includes all privately owned graving 
docks in the United States, floating docks, and marine railways of 
1,500 tons capacity and over. The list shows that there are only 33 
graving docks and 84 floating dry docks privately owned of the 
capacity specified in the United States. Of the latter 46 are at the 
port of New York. Of the graving docks 30 will accommodate 
vessels 350 feet or more in length. Of the floating docks only 45 
have an overall length of 350 feet or more. 

From the best information available England in 1918 possessed 220 
dry docks capable of docking ships 350 feet or more in length. 
These dry docks are, in the main, the property of private concerns, 
although some of them are owned by the various port authorities. 
There are, of course, smaller dry docks and marine railways capable 
of handling smaller ships. In 1918, the port of London alone had 14 
dry docks 350 feet or more in length. Liverpool had 19, Manchester 
3, Glasgow 8, Newcastle 16, and Hull 5 graving docks 350 feet or 
more in length. It would seem that the provision of needed facilities 
for the docking and repair of vessels is a matter of outstanding 
importance in the development of shipping and in the advancement 



246 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



of our position as a maritime nation. The importance of the shipping 
of the port of Philadelphia renders it highly desirable that this port 
be placed upon a more efficient basis with reference to its facilities 
for meeting these requisites of modern maritime trade. Conditions 
all point to the desirability of providing at suitable locations 
additional dry docks for the large cargo carriers. 



TARIFF DRY DOCKS, MARINE RAILWAYS, ETC. 

The following is a list of charges for the use of the dry dock and 
marine railways of one of the principal ship repair plants of the 
port, in effect January 1, 1922: 



Basis of charge (sizes, in feet). 


Rate for 
dock 
days. 


Rate for 
lay 
days. 


Basis of charge (sizes, in feet). 


Rate for 
dock 
days. 


Rate for 

lay 
days. 


BARGES. 


$20. 00 
25.00 
30. 00 

40.00 
45. 00 
55. 00 
65.00 


$18. 00 
20.00 
25.00 

.35. 00 
40.00 
50.00 
50.00 


TOWBOATS. 

0to60 


$20. 00 
25.00 
30.00 
35.00 
40.00 
60.00 
90.00 
130. 00 
180. 00 

.12 


$15. 00 


90 to 110 


61 to 70 


20.00 




71 to 90 


25.00 




91 tollO 




STEEL OIL BAEGES. 


Ill to 125. 


35.00 




126 to 150 


50 00 


to 150 


151 to 175 


75.00 


151 to 175 


176 to 200. 


110.00 




201 to 225 


160. 00 


201 to 250 


SCHOONERS. 

200 tons or over (ordinary 










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MiTiimnm charge is $20 for dock days and $15 for lay days. 



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256 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

MARINE REPAIR PLANTS. 

There are three marine repair plants at Philadelpliia, six at Camden, 
three at Essington, four at Chester, and five at Wilmington. These 
include several small plants that repair only yachts and small craft. 
The Clinton Shipbuilding & Repair Co. is equipped to build and re- 
pair barges, tugs, car floats, and tank barges. The Kensington Ship- 
yard Co. is ecjuipped to make all kinds of repairs; all facilities of the 
William Cramp <fe Sons Shipyard are available for use at tliis yard. 
The Philadelphia Ship Repair Co. has modern equipment for ship 
repairing. 

Detailed information regarding the facilities at Pliiladelphia, 
Camden, Essington, Chester, and Wilmington is given in the follow- 
ing table: 



Equipment foi 
wood stean 



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None 


dy- 


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None 


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CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U 5 ARMY 




BOARD OF ENGINEERS 
FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS 

"iAILROADS SERVING THE PORT OF 
PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

SCALE OF rrt: 

f'' -TATirriCIAN MAJOR Ci^li>'A-"' ■■ '-'V' ■ 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

RAILROADS. 

Railroad systems serving Philadelphia. — Tlie port of Phila- 
delphia is served by three railroad systems and one belt-line railroad — 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co., the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., 
the Pliiladelphia & Reading Railway Co., and the Philadelphia Belt 
Line Railroad Co. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad extends in a general westerly 
direction from Pliiladelphia, passing through Baltimore, Washing- 
ton, Cumberland, Pittsburgh, Youngstown, and Akron to Chicago, 
m., and reaching Lake Erie through branches at Fairport, Cleve- 
land, Lorain, Sandusky, and Toledo. It also extends from Cumber- 
land and Pittsburgh to St. Louis, Mo., and reaches Charleston and 
Wheeling, W. Va., Columbus, Chillicothe, Dayton, and Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Louisville, Ky., and Springfield, 111., by its own rails, and 
through its connections every place of importance between New York 
and the Mississippi River north of the Ohio River. It reaches New 
York over the rails of the Philadelphia & Reading and Central of 
New Jersey and has extensive freight terminals on Staten Island 
serving the port of New York. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad extends from New York to Wash- 
ington, passing through Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore, 
and westward from Philadelphia through Harrisburg and Altoona to 
Pittsburgh, from which city it has two main lines, one extending 
to Chicago, 111., and one to St. Louis, Mo. Through branches, con- 
necting cross lines, and subsidiaries, it reaches Williamsport, Oil City, 
and Erie, Pa., Elmira, Rochester, and Buffalo, N. Y., Cincinnati, 
Columbus, Toledo, Cleveland, and Ashtabula, Ohio, Louisville, Ky., 
Fort Wayne, Logansport, Indianapolis, and Terre Haute, Ind., 
Grand Rapids and Mackinaw City, Mich. A network of branch 
lines and subsidiaries covers almost the entire States of Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware, as well as all of Long 
Island. Through its own rails and those of its connections it serves 
the entire country north of the Ohio and Potomac Rivers and east 
of the Mississippi River. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Railway through its own rails 
reaches nearly every place of importance in eastern Pennsylvania, 
and through its subsidiary, the Atlantic City Railroad, and its ally, 
the Central Railroad of New Jersey, reaches New York City and the 
greater part of the State of New Jersey. Through its connections it 



270 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

serves also New England and the territory north of the Ohio and 
Potomac Rivers east of the Mississippi River. 

The Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad extends along the Dela- 
ware River front between the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the 
Pennsylvania Railroad terminals at the south on the river front and 
the Philadelphia & Reading Railway at the north, also on the river 
front. It also extends northward from the Port Richmond terminals 
of the Philadelphia & Reading Railway to Bridesburg. The com- 
pany was organized in 1889 for the purpose of conducting a belt 
system along the water front which would always be open to all 
railroads on equal terms. A charter was secured granting to the 
Belt Line the right to construct a railroad from a point on the Schuyl- 
Idll River near Point Breeze, following approximately the course of 
the rivers to a point on the Delaware at Tacony. Fifty-one per cent 
of the stock is held in trust for the interest of the city. 

The portions actually constructed are from Allegheny Avenue to 
Bridesburg, 2.66 miles, and from Vine Street to South Street, 0.88 
miles. These portions are operated by the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway under a trackage right agreement, and represents less than 
one-third of the length of the franchise right. In May, 1892, an 
agreement was entered into between the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
the Belt Line in which it was agreed that until the road of the Belt 
Line was constructed the road owned by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road extending from Callowhill Street to Tasker Street, 2.07 miles, 
was to be operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad as part of the 
Belt Line, all movement of cars on this section to be by Pennsylvania 
locomotives, the Belt Line owning neither locomotives nor cars, the 
Pennsylvania Railroad to maintain the track and the Belt Line to 
pay the Pennsylvania a fixed amount for each car switched. When 
cars are switched for account of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad or 
the Philadelphia & Reading Railway these railroads reimburse the 
Belt Line in the same amount as the Belt Line pays the Pennsylvania 
Railroad for performing the service. 

The Belt Line does not make or concur in any through rates from 
or to points on its line, such points being considered as Philadelphia 
deliveries of the carriers serving Philadelphia as though they were 
their own sidetracks or spurs. 

FACILITIES FOR INTERCHANGE BETWEEN RAIL AND WATER, 

All trans-Atlantic and coastwise lines have direct communication 
with one or more of the railroads serving Philadelphia, and many 
of them regularly berth at terminals owned or operated by the 
railroads, which give free dockage to steamships taking or discharging 
cargo of which any part passes over rails of the carrier owning or 
operating the terminal. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 271 

An extensive car-float and lighterage system makes it possible to 
deliver export freight, except certain articles which are not lightered, 
to vessels docking at any point along the Delaware and Schuylkill 
Rivers within lighterage limits. The limits of free lighterage and car 
floatage vary with the different rail carriers, as described in the tariffs, 
as follows : 

Baltimore cfe Ohio Railroad. — Delaware River, Pennsylvania side, from Allegheny- 
Avenue to Patterson Street; New Jersey side, from Coopers Creek, including points 
thereon, to Gloucester, N. J. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — Delaware River, Pennsylvania side, from Pennypack 
Creek to mouth of Schuylkill River, including Fort Mifflin; New Jersey side, from 
mouth of Pensauken Creek to mouth of Woodbury Creek, including points on Coopers 
Creek; Schuylkill River, from intersection with Delaware River to Spring Garden 
Street Bridge. 

Philadelphia & Reading Railway. — Delaware River, Pennsylvania side, from Bristol, 
Pa., to mouth of Schuylkill River, including Fort Mifflin; New Jersey side, from 
Florence, N. J., to mouth of Woodbury Creek, including points on Coopers Creek; 
Schuylldll River, from junction with Delaware River to Penrose Ferry Bridge. 

SWITCHING. 

If export freight is placed for deUvery at any of the terminals and, 
on account of failure to arrive in time for the sailing of a specified 
steamer, or for any other reason, is sent to another terminal, switching 
charges are assessed by both lines handling the shipment. 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad switching charges range from S2.70 
to $11.50 per car. Some are named only in connection with a line 
haul, and others are published jointly with other carriers. Kates to 
Philadelphia via the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad on coal, anthracite, 
bituminous or cannel, and on coke, coke breeze, coke dust, coke 
screening, and coal boulets or briquets are applicable to Baltimore 
& Ohio dehveries only. 

Intraplant switching is assessed S2.70 or S3. 15 per car, depending 
on whether movement is or is not in connection with a line haul, 
and switching rates between sidings on Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
range from $3.60 to $6.30 per car. Between connection with Phil- 
adelphia & Reading Railway at Park Junction and sidings on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the rate is from $3.60 to $11 per car. 
Between Park Junction connection with the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway and the Chester branch of the Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
way, also between the Chester branch of the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway and deliveries on Philadelphia & Reading Railway north of 
Market Street, the charge is $1.35 per car when moved by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway locomotives. Between the connection 
with the Philadelphia & Reading Railway at Park Junction and 
deliveries on Philadelphia & Reading Railway north of Market Street, 
the charge is $1.80 per car when movement is by the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad locomotives. 



272 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Examples of joint switching rates are furnished by the Baltimore 
& Ohio Kaih'oad tariff (I. C. G. 18718), which publishes rates from 
the east side station of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to various 
stations in Philadelphia on the Philadelphia & Reading Railway. 
The rate on petroleum and its products in carloads ranges from 6 to 
13 cents per 100 pounds, and on asphaltum, pitch, etc., in carloads, 
from 6 to 12|^ cents per 100 pounds. 

If no specific switching rate is published, the following class rates 
are provided in the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tariff (I. C. C. 17527) 
on property movmg locally between Baltimore & Ohio stations in 
Pliiladelphia. 

Governed by the official classification. 



12 3 4 5 6 

Rates in cents per 100 pounds.. 31| 27 21 J 16 Hi 9 

Philadelphia & Reading Railway switching charges range from 
$2.70 to $16 per car. For intraplant switching the charge is $3.15 
per car, and for secondary switching, $2.70 per car. From or to 
connection with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Park Jmiction 
charges range from $2.70 to $6.75 per car. 

On live stock from Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to steamers at 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway docks the charge is $6.30 per car. 
Erie Avenue to steamers, plus 1^ cents per 100 pounds; on other 
live-stock movements, the charges range from $9.50 to $12.50 per car. 

Between Baldwin Locomotive Works and other points in Phil- 
adelphia, when in connection with a line haul, charges range from 
$1.35 to $6.75 per car; when not in connection with a line haul, $3,15 
to $8.10 per car. 

Between Port Richmond and Nicetown or Wayne Junction, the 
charge is $3.60 per car. Between Port Richmond and sidings, 
Reed to Pollock Streets, inclusive, it is $10 per car. The latter 
two apply on freight generally in carloads (except coal, coke, grain 
and its products, hay, straw, fruit and vegetables), which pays Phil- 
adelphia & Reading Railway a line haul, and are based on a minimum 
of 40,000 pounds. Excess weight is charged for in proportion. On 
grain and its products rates between the same points range from 
$3.60 to $9 per car regardless of weight. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad switching charges are similar to 
those of other carriers serving the port of Philadelphia. Some of 
the more important rates are as follows: 

On coal and coke, between the junction with the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway at Delaware Avenue and Callowhill Street, or with 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Delaware Avenue and Wharton 
Lane, and sidings on Commercial Avenue and Swanson Street, or 
on Delaware Avenue and Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad, the 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 273 

charge for loaded cars ranges from $1.35 to $1.80, and for empty 
cars from 63 to 82 cents. No charge is made for return of empty 
cars which pass over the line loaded and are offered for return move- 
ment withm 10 days. 

On all freight ( except coal and coke) in the Philadelphia Belt Line 
trade between Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad yards and sidings, 
warehouses and piers (not including those owned by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad) on Delaware Avenue between Callowhill Street and Tasker 
Street, the charge for loaded cars ranges from $1.35 to $1.80, and 
for empty cars from 63 to 82 cents. On all carload freight, except 
coal and coke and ore in the Philadelphia Belt Line trade placed 
on Piers 38 or 40, South Delaware Avenue, for delivery to vessels 
and reconsigned after placement to Piers 38, 40, 46, 48, 53, 55, 56, 
or 57, South Delaware Avenue, for delivery to vessels the charge 
is $10 per car. Between junction with the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway at Delaware Avenue and Callowhill Street and private sid- 
ings on Philadelphia & Reading Railway piers and warehouses on line 
between Callowhill Street and Greenwich branch the rates range from 
$1.35 to $1.80 on loaded cars and from 63 to 82 cents on empty cars. 

The charge for switching reconsigned freight between Pennsylvania 
Railroad stations in Philadelphia varies from $2.70 to $16 per car. 

On all freight (except coal, coke, petroleum and its products, 
lumber and lumber articles) originating at or west of trunk line 
western termini arriving in Philadelphia via the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway the charge for movement from Beltmont, Pa., to 
Philadelphia stations on the Pennsylvania Railroad is 66^ cents 
per ton of 2,000 pounds, carload minimum weight, 30,000 pounds. 

Perishable freight, requiring icing after placement at Washington 
Avenue Wharf is assessed $6.30 per car for movement to West 
Philadelphia Market House for icing and return. 

The rate on petroleum and its products from Washington Avenue 
Wharf to Pier 62, via Twenty-fifth and Wolf Streets and Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad, is 6 cents per 100 pounds. 

Import freight arriving by vessel docking at Piers 9, 19 or 50, 
north, Piers 16, 28, 30, 34, 35, 38, 40, 46, 48, 53, 55, 56, 57 or 58 
south, Girard Point or Greenwich, moving to storage warehouses at 
Vine Street, Dock Street, Washington Avenue Wharf, Federal Street, 
Morris Street, Broad Street and Washington Avenue, Thirty-first 
and Chestnut Streets, North Philadelphia, Shackamaxon, Tioga 
Street, Ontario Street or Kensington, is assessed 5 cents per 100 
pounds. On export freight from warehouses named to piers named, 
the charge is 5 cents per 100 pounds. On other freight between sta- 
tions in Philadelphia, in connection with a line haul, the charges 
range from $2.70 to $6.30 per car; not in connection with a line 
haul, $2.70 to $11 per car. 



274 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Local switching charges of the Philadelphia Belt Line from 
one yard, siding, track, or industry to another yard, siding, track, or 
industry are $6.30 per car for loaded movement, which includes the 
return of the empty car. Internal switching performed by carrier's 
engines in moving a loaded car from one location within a mill or 
industry to another location within the confines of the same mill or 
works, to be unloaded there, is assessed $3.50 per car. These rates 
are for local switching only and do not apply to any portion of an 
interstate movement, nor to cars which have been received from or 
are to be delivered to any railroad company which has not complied 
with the rules and regulations governing the Philadelphia Belt Line 
Railroad Co. 

CAR DEMURRAGE. 

The charge for car demurrage is practically the same at all points 
in official classification territory. This charge is usually $2 per car 
per day, or fraction thereof, beginning at the expiration of 48 hours 
from the first 7 a. m. after the car is placed for loading or unloading 
for each of the first four days, and $5 for each succeeding day. 

This applies on domestic freight which does not move to or from 
the port by water. 

Charges on export and import freight and on domestic freight mov- 
ing in coastwise vessels to or from the port are shown under 
"Storage." 

Demurrage charges are not applicable on grain for the Port Rich- 
mond elevator unless ordered held in cars by the owners or recon- 
signed. 

CAR STORAGE YARDS. 

The following table shows the car capacity of the various freight 
yards of the several railroads serving the port of Philadelphia. 

In order to avoid possible misunderstanding, the following defini- 
tions of the terms used in the tabulation are given : 

Classification: Tracks used principally for receiving cars and trains from other 
points and roads, for making np trains, for sorting cars to be switched to points within 
yard limits, or to other lines, and for forwarding cars and trains. 

Storage: Tracks used principally for storage of empty cars, or loaded cars held in 
transit for orders, such as those loaded with coal, grain, lumber, etc., which are after- 
wards reconsigned to other destinations. 

House: Tracks in or leading to or alongside public freight houses. 

Team and delivery: Tracks set apart for use by the public generally, on which 
cars are set for loading or unloading carload freight; also tracks leading to or upon 
piers and wharves. 

Industrial: Tracks serving a factory warehouse, or the like, used by one or more 
specified individuals or firms and not for general public use. 

Repair and service: Tracks set apart for the repair of cars and locomotives, for 
placing of cars containing supplies for train crews, ashes, etc., and for storing of loco- 
motives and cabooses. 

Not classified: Under this heading are placed all tracks for which no definite 
information of their use has been obtained as well as those which are used for several 
different purposea. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



275 



Tabulation shovnng car capacity affreight yards, Philadelphia, Pa., classified according to 
purpose for which used. 



Railroad, section, and yard. 


Classi- 
fica- 
tion. 


Stor- 
age. 


House. 


Team 
andde- 
hvery. 


Indus- 
trial. 


Repair 

and 
ser\ice. 


Not 
classi- 
fied. 


Grand 
total. 


PENNSYLVANIA R. R. 


745 

1,740 

576 

115 

461 

453 

286 

1,353 

1,292 

709 

912 














745 


Fifty-second Street yard 


385 


15 


86 




128 


360 


2,714 
576 


Mantua yard 


Park yard 














115 
















461 


South yard . 














453 


Grays Ferry yard 






25 




12 




323 




1,200 
1,000 




2,553 










45 


376 


2,713 




80 


107 






Frankford Junction yard 








912 


Margie Street yard 


259 




13 








272 


Spring Garden Street yard 


200 
400 








200 


Dyard 








. .'..'. 






400 




98 












98 




370 
179 












370 


D-9yard.. .. 














179 


Fifteenth Street yard 






90 








90 




174 












174 




139 


10 
8 
61 


12 
9 
97 








161 


Tacony yard 










17 


Broad and Washington Avenue yard. 


34 


40" 








192 








40 






16 


33 
20 
13 
38 
56 
52 
25 
66 
43 
7 
5 
54 
43 
129 
60 
35 
32 
30 
53 








49 


Overbrook yard 












20 


Woodland Avenue yard 






4 

7 
8 

16 
4 

19 








17 




53 










98 










64 


North Philadelphia yard 




76 








144 












29 














85 


Bridesburg yard 












43 








6 

1 
1 
17 
22 
43 








13 














6 


Bustleton yard 












55 


Fairhillvard 












60 














151 















103 


Norris Street yard 


153 


"■ 








188 














32 









32 
20 

28 








62 


Vime Street yard 












73 


Dock Street yard 












28 








7 

54 
20 
11 
17 
20 
10 
25 
38 
37 

7 
59 
197 
30 
93 








7 








10 








64 


Caroenter vard . . 












20 








i 

1 

4 








12 














18 


Chestnut Hill yard . . . 












24 


Gennantown Road vard 












10 
















25 


Shunk Street yard 














38 


Diamond Street yard 














37 
















7 
















59 


Thirtv-first and Chestnut Streets yard. 




. .. 


20 








217 


Twelfth Street C. L. D. yard 












30 


Pier No. 50, N. D. W. yard 














93 




















10,205 


3,197 


454 


1,858 




185 


736 


16,635 


PHILADELPHIA A READING RY. CO. 

Wayne Junction and Ninth Street 
district 


445 

901 
1,822 
3,144 


185 

425 

281 

1,450 


35 

308 
94 
130 


359 

435 
289 
140 




230 

48 


325 
13 


1,579 

2,130 
2,486 


Erie Avenue and Berks Street dis- 


Subway and Belmont district 


:::::::: 


80 


100 


6,044 








6,312 


2,341 


567 


1,223 





358 


438 


11,239 



276 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Tabulation showing car capacity affreight yards, Philadelphia, Pa., classified according to 
purpose for which u^ed — Continued. 



Railroad, section, and yard. 


Classi- 
fica- 
tion. 


Stor- 
age. 


House. 


Team 
and de- 
Uvery. 


Indus- 
trial. 


Repair 

and 
service. 


Not 
classi- 
fied. 


Grand 
total. 


BALTIMOEE & OmO R. R. 

East Side vard 


1,136 


58 








429 




1 579 






20 
26 
14 
46 
40 




' 20 


Race Street yard 






10 
14 


16 
6 






52 


Locust Street 




37 


17 




88 






46 




55 


40 
357 
35 


14 








149 


Snyder Avenue 








357 


Dickinson Street 


80 


133 
62 


50 


40 




12 


350 


Pier 40 


62 




















1,271 


527 


233 


196 


62 


446 


12 


2,753 


PHILADELPHIA BELT LINE E. K. 








23 
8 
15 
12 








23 


Mead Alley yard 














8 


Wharton Lane yard 














15 
















12 


Reynolds Street yard 






::::': 






6 


6 


Delaware division. 










78 




78 


Piers 






::.:.:.: 


170 






170 










248 






248 


























228 


326 





6 


560 













Pennsylvania R. R 


10,205 
6,312 
1,271 


3,197 

2,341 

527 


454 
567 
233 


1,858 

1,223 

196 

228 


62' 

326 


185 

358 

446 




736 

438 

12 

6 


16,635 
11,239 




Baltimore & Ohio R. R 


2,747 


Philadelphia Belt Line R. R 


560 












Total 


17,788 


6,065 


1,254 


3,505 


388 


989 


1,192 


31,181 







CAK FLOATAGE AND LIGHTERAGE. 



Floatage — Domestic traffi^i. 



A single shipment of freight consisting of four carloads or more, or 
the equivalent weight of four carloads at the minimum weight pre- 
scribed in the tariff under which the shipment moves, is entitled to 
free movement by car float to or from any point within free lighterage 
limits, provided the rail carriers hauling the freight receive revenue 
at the rate of 10 cents per 100 pounds or S2.02 per ton, net or gross, 
as the freight is rated, or at a higher rate. 

If the revenue accruing to the rail carriers is less than that specified 
in the preceding paragraph, a floatage charge of 3^ cents per 100 
pounds, or 76 cents per ton, net or gross, or so much thereof as will 
make the aggregate charges equal 10 cents per 100 pounds or $2.02 
per ton, is added. 

If the weight is less than the prescribed minimum for four cars the 
charges are increased to equal the revenue on four cars at the mini- 
mum weight at 10 cents per 100 pounds or $2.02 per ton. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 277 

Lighterage — Domestic traffic. 

Kates to and from Philadelphia, Pa., include cost of lighterage to 
or from any point within lighterage limits, upon freight in carloads, 
on which the revenue accruing to the rail carriers equals or exceeds 
10 cents per 100 pounds or $2.02 per ton, net or gross, as the freight 
is rated. A minimum weight of 75 tons is usually required. In 
some cases, such as lighterage to or from Fort Mifflin and League 
Island, 100 tons is the minimmn. 

Tariffs of the carriers serving the port of Philadelphia usually pro- 
vide that traffic may be floated, lightered, or drayed at the option of 
the carriers. 

Demurrage charges of $10 per day per float or lighter are assessed 
if car floats or lighters are held beyond free time. Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad tariff provides one day free time for car floats and lighters; 
Pennsylvania tariff provides one day free time for lighters and two 
days for car floats; and the Philadelphia & Reading Railway tariff 
provides two days free time for both lighters and car floats. Sunday 
and legal holidays are excluded in computing free time. 

Traffic destined to or received from foreign ports. 

Unless otherwise provided in the tariff under which the traffic 
moves, rates to or from Philadelphia which pay the raU carriers 9 
cents or more per 100 pounds or SI. 76 or more per ton, net or gross, 
as the freight is rated, include receipt from or delivery alongside 
vessels, either by car float, lighter, team, or otherwise at the option 
of the rail carrier. 

If the revenue accruing to the rail carriers is less than 9 cents per 
100 pounds or $1.76 per ton, an additional charge is made of 3^ cents 
per 100 pounds, or 76 cents per ton or so much thereof as will make 
the aggregate charge 9 cents per 100 pounds, or $1.76 per ton. 



General 



provisions. 



Tariffs of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway provide that if transfer of carload traffic from ship- 
side is performed by others than the rail carrier the allowance for 
such service shall not exceed 3 cents per 100 pounds or 60 cents per 
ton, net or gross, the allowance in no case to be made to shippers 
or consignees. 

The tariff of the Philadelphia & Reading RaUway provides that 
the minimum of 75 tons does not apply on traffic to or from vessels 
of coastwise steamship lines in regular service between Philadelphia 
and points south of the Delaware Capes. 

Lighterage charges are in addition to the rate on traffic transported 
over the Philadelphia Reading Railway when destined to points 



278 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

on the Pennsylvania Railroad or the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad. 

On traffic via all lines certain articles are lightered only by special 
agreement and others are not lightered. Bulk freight, coal, coke, 
pig iron, steel blooms, bridge and structural iron, ores, launches, 
spars, masts, piling, lumber, and all analagous articles, freight in 
packages or pieces or more than 3 tons weight, or of extraordinary 
dimensions are lightered only by special agreement. Articles not 
lightered consist of such freight as loose balusters, bottles in burlap- 
top barrels, all kinds of loose brick, broom corn, draintile, etc. 

For further particulars see the following tariffs : Baltimore & Ohio 
(I. C. C. 18686, 18691); Penns3dvania G. O. (I. C. C. 12518); Phil- 
adelphia & Reading (I. C. C. J-8282, supplements to and reissues 
thereof) . 

DOCKAGE. 

Rail carriers assess dockage (called wharfage in tariffs) against 
vessels docking at the piers controlled by them unless the cargo of the 
vessel, or at least part of such cargo, moves over the rails of the 
carrier controlling the pier. Full dockage is charged if vessel does 
not immediately unload or remains at dock after discharging inward 
cargo or after loading outward cargo. 

Rates of dockage. 

Steamers 1 cent per ton per day on net registered 

tonnage. 

Sailing vessels, barges One-half cent per ton per day on gross 

registered tonnage. 
Canal boats, inland barges, small river $2 per day each.' 
craft. 

Information regarding dockage at public and private piers will be 
found on page 27 of this report. 

HANDLING. 

Import and export traffic, which pays the rail carriers 5 cents per 100 
pounds or $1 per ton or more (unless otherwise provided in the tariff 
under which it moves) , is unloaded by the rail carrier from cars for 
delivery to vessels or loaded by rail carrier into cars from vessels 
docking at the piers operated by the rail carrier or pubhc piers 
operated by steamship companies, pier companies, the city of 
Philadelphia or individuals, other than those controlled by the 
owners of the freight. This rule does not apply on bulk grain (except 
flaxseed), coal or coke, (except petroleum coke), or traffic handled 
at the open piers from or to open cars or on traffic lightered or drayed. 

1 Dockage charge of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. on canal boats and inland barges is $1 per day each. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 279 

On import or export traffic which pays less than 5 cents per 100 
pounds or $1 per ton there is added a loading or unloading charge 
of 10 cents per ton or so much thereof as will make the total charges 
5 cents per 100 pounds or $1 per ton. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad tariff makes a similar provision on 
traffic received from or delivered to vessels in the coastwise traffic. 

A dumping charge of 19 cents per ton, net or gross as rated, is 
assessed for transferring coal and coke from cars to vessels at Port 
Richmond, Pa., and Wilmington, Del., when the tariff rates apply 
f. o. b. piers. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Railway publishes a tariff providing 
charges for trimming coal and coke at Port Richmond piers and Del- 
aware River coal piers ranging from 3 to 17 cents per gross ton on 
cargo coal, from 15 to 28 cents per gross ton on bunker coal, and from 
14 to 34 cents per net ton on cargo coke, according to the type of 
vessel. If the vessel has been partly loaded elsewhere an additional 
charge of 6 cents per ton is assessed. 

Wheeling, when performed, is charged for at the rate of 63 cents 
per ton additional. 

LeveUng coal or coke at the request of shipper or vessel's agent 
is charged for at the rate of 69 cents per man per hour. 

Dumping coal at trestles, not tidewater shipments, is charged for 
at the rate of 6 cents per gross ton. 



Baltimore & Ohio Railroad — Export freigiit. — With the ex- 
ception of grain, coal, and coke, export carload freight will be held 
free in warehouses or in cars 10 days, and less than carload freight, 
5 days, exclusive of date of arrival. After the expiration of free 
time the storage charge is 1 cent per 100 pounds for the first 10 
days or fraction, and one-half cent per 100 pounds for each succeed- 
ing 10 days or fraction. In computing free time Sundays and 
legal hoUdays are excluded. 

Freight not consigned in shipping order and bill of lading for 
export which is ordered to be exported after arrival at Philadelphia, 
is subject to storage rates, rules, and regulations applying on do- 
mestic traffic. 

In pursuance of an agreement entered into by the Baltimore & 
Oliio Railroad, the United States Shipping Board and practically 
all of the steamship companies and operators serving the North 
Atlantic ports, through export bill of lading, will be issued only 
when founded on written ocean contract, and then only when 
shipper gives written guaranty that any storage charges accruing 
at Philadelphia will be paid. 



280 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA, 

Carload freight covered by through export bill of lading issued iu 
connection with lines and operators referred to in the preceding 
paragraph will be held in warehouse or at the option of the carrier 
in cars at the port of export for not exceeding 15 days exclusive of 
the date of arrival, the storage charge mentioned above to apply 
thereafter. In the event of failure or omission of steamer to clear 
freight on vessel, or during period for which specifically booked, or 
to order freight within 15 days time, all storage accruing after the 
free time shall be paid by the steamship company or operator. If 
the rail carrier fails to transport the shipment to the port in time to 
clear on vessel, or during period for which booked, storage charges 
do not apply until the announced date of the vessel on wliich again 
booked. If freight is delivered by the rail carrier at the port more 
than 15 days in advance of the date for which freight is booked, such 
excess is considered additional free time. Storage charges cease 
when steamer is ready to accept cargo, or when freight is delivered 
to a pier controlled by the steamship company. Storage charges 
which accrue on account of any delay caused by the shipper, or his 
agents, are assessed against the freight. The same rules apply on 
export freight in carloads moving in connection with steamship 
companies or operators, not parties to the above-mentioned agree- 
ment, except that the free storage period is 10 days only. 

Import freight. — Import package freight, in transit or awaiting 
reshipment, is held free for 15 days after vessel completes discharging 
cargo. Import bulk freight except iron, manganese, or chrome ore, 
is held free for five days. 

Hay, straw, cotton, and explosives, also iron ore, manganese ore, 
and chrome ore, in bulk, are not accepted for storage. 

Storage charges after the expiration of free time are 1| cents per 
100 pounds for the first 10 days or fraction thereof; and one-half 
cent per 100 pounds for each succeeding 10 days or fraction. In 
computing free time Sundays and legal holidays are excluded. 

The above regulations on import freight apply on freight imported 
from foreign countries (except Canada and Newfoundland on other 
than wood pulp), including Cuba and the insular possessions of the 
United States and the Panama Canal Zone. 

Domestic freight. — Domestic freight wliich is for transshipment 
by vessel, except coal, coke, and similar freight, when on a local bill 
of lading, is held free for five days after the date of arrival, exclusive 
of Sundays and legal holidays. 

Storage charges after free time are as follows: First 10 days or 
fraction, per 100 pounds, 1 cent; each succeeding 10 days or fraction, 
one-half cent per 100 pounds. 

Specified articles of iron and steel may be unloaded and placed on 
piers, bulkheads, and lands of the Baltimore & Ohio Kailroad. On 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 281 

export shipments 10 days' free time is allowed from the first 7 a. m. 
after notice of arrival is sent. Upon written notice by shipper or 
consignee property will be unloaded and will be subject to handling 
and ground storage charges as follows: First 30 days or fraction after 
free time, 55 cents per ton; each succeeding 30 days or fraction, 
6 cents per ton. 

Such traffic, if otherwise entitled to it, retains free lighterage privi- 
lege and when ordered for lighterage delivery is not subject to recon- 
signment charges. 

Similar regulations apply to rough and sawed stone and cooperage 
stock, except that the charge on sawed stone and cooperage stock 
is 60 cents per ton for the first 30 days after free time. 

Lumber received at PMladelphia via Baltimore & Oliio Railroad 
may be unloaded and stored on the premises of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad at the rate of $3.60 per carload per month or fraction thereof. 
Storage charges begin with the completion of unloading of car. 

Cars arriving at Philadelphia loaded with coal or coke for trans- 
shipment by vessel may be held by or for consignors or consignees 
subject to the following regulations: 

An average of five days' time free is allowed except on coke for 
export, on which 10 days' time free per car is allowed. Time is 
computed from first 7 a. m. after notice of arrival is given, and Sun- 
days and legal holidays are excluded from computation of time. 
A car is considered released when unloaded, or when vessel registers 
for cargo or fuel supply. 

Settlement is made montlily on the basis of detention of all the 
cars released during the month. The date of arrival to be deducted 
from the date of release. From the total days' detention of all cars 
deduct five days for each car, except on coke for export, on which 
deduct 10 days for each car. The remaining days, if any, are charged 
for at $2 each. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — All domestic freight forwarded from 
Philadelphia by water as well as export and import freight, is subject 
to the same rules as shown above applying at the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad terminals. 

The list of steamship companies covered by the agreement allowing 
15 days free storage differs somewhat from that published by the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and Philadelphia & Reading Railway. 

Freight on which the Pemisylvania Railroad does not receive a 
line haul may remain on the piers at the owners risk, free of charge, 
not exceeding two days, exclusive of Sundays and legal holidays. 
If not removed within free time the freight will be subject to placing 
in public storage or to storage by the Pennsylvania Railroad at the 
rate of 6^ cents per 100 pounds for each 30 days or fraction thereof, 
2497°— 23 19 



282 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

except as follows: Lumber, 31^ cents per 1,000 feet each 30 days or 
fraction; ties, 31^ cents per 1,000 feet each 30 days or fraction; 
lath, 6^ cents per 1,000 lath each 30 days or fraction. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad makes the same regulations for ground 
storage of iron and steel articles and for holding coal and coke as 
noted above for Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Railway. — All domestic freight 
forwarded from Philadelpliia by water and all export and import 
freight is subject to the same rules as noted above for the Baltimore 
& Ohio terminals, except that the Philadelphia & Reading Railway 
tariff provides the following minimum charges for storage of domestic 
coastwise freight: 1,000 pounds or less, 15 cents minimum; more than 
1,000 pounds, 20 cents minimum. 

The Philadelpliia & Reading Railway makes the same provision 
for storage of iron and steel articles and for holding coal and coke as 
is shown above for the Baltimore & Oliio Railroad. 

Lumber arriving at Pliiladelphia via the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway may be stored on premises of the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway at the rate of $3.78 per month for 300 square feet or less. 
Storage charges begin to accrue at the completion of unloading of car, 
which must be done by or at the expense of the owners of the lumber. 

Anthracite coal arriving at Port Richmond may be stored at that 
point under the following regulations : Dumping into bins and storage 
to first day of the following month, the rate is 15 cents per gross ton 
on a minimum of 500 gross tons or the capacity of the bin, if less. 
For each succeeding calendar month the rate is 2 cents per gross ton, 
with a minimum charge of one-half cent per gross ton on the total 
capacity of the bin. The time limit is two years. For reloading 
coal into cars 20 cents per gross ton is charged. These charges include 
the necessary switching. Local rates apply to Port Richmond. If 
delivered over piers within time limit, the rate is adjusted to that 
applicable on coal delivered to vessels in effect on the date of original 
shipment. If not reshipped witliin two years, no adjustment of rate 
is made, and a charge of 19 cents per gross ton is made for reshipping 
over piers to vessels. 

GRAIN, ELEVATION, STORAGE, ETC. 

Export grain. 

Grain arriving at Philadelphia for export may be stored in the 
elevator of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Girard Point, or the elevator 
of the Philadelpliia Grain Elevator Co. at Port Richmond. Except 
by special arrangement no grain will be received at either elevator 
unless inspected and graded by authorized inspectors. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 283 

The charge for elevation, including receipt from cars, weighing, 
20 days' storage, and delivery to vessel alongside elevator or by 
lighter to a steamship of a regular line docking at a pier within light- 
erage limits of Philadelpliia, is 1 cent per bushel. After the period 
of 20 days storage is charged at the rate of one twenty-fifth cent per 
bushel per day. 

The following charges are made for other services and are in addi- 
tion to charges for elevation and storage: 

Cents per bushel. 

Mixing in store }^ 

Screening and blowing i/g 

Mixing, screening, and blowing ^ 

Mixing at time of delivery to vessel Free 

Reloading or trimming cars $1 per car. 

Charges for drying grain. 

Nos. 1, 2, or 3 barley, oats, or wheat i^ 

Nos. 1, 2, or 3 corn, white, yellow, or mixed i^ 

No. 4 barley, oats, or wheat ^ 

Nos. 4 or 5 com, white, yellow, or mixed 3^ 

No. 3 rye % 

No. 5 barley, oats, or wheat 1 

No. 6 com, white, yellow, or mixed 1 

No. 4 rye 1 

Rejected rye ii^ 

Sample oats li^ 

Sample wheat, dry for higher grade l}/^ 

Sample corn, dry for higher grade IJ^ 

Sample wheat, dry for sample grade 2}/^ 

Sample corn, dry for sample grade 2}^ 

All grain is dried under the supervision and control of the inspec- 
tion department of the Commercial Exchange. Charges are based 
on weights after drying. All loss in weight by heating or other cause 
in elevator or drier and fii-e or marine loss on grain lightered to vessels 
is borne by the owners. 

The Philadelphia & Reading tariff provides for insurance against 
loss by fire on all grain received in the Port Richmond elevator or 
drier, the premium on wliich is charged on the period stored based 
on an annual rate of 25 cents per $100 value. This insurance is 
placed unless otherwise ordered by owners, in which case the owners 
must assume all risk. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad tariff provides that it will not receive 
or store at the Girard Point elevator unsound, unmerchantable, or 
"sample grade" grain, or grain from vessels or in bags. 

Domestic grain. 

The charge for elevation, including receipt from cars, weighing, 10 
days' storage, and delivery to cars or wagon is one-half cent per bushel. 



284 THE PORT or PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The rate for storage for each succeeding 10 days or fraction thereof is 
one-quarter cent per bushel. The charge for blowing, screening, or 
mixing in store is one-quarter cent per bushel. The charge for 
tiuTiing in store is one-quarter cent per bushel. Mixing at time of 
delivery to cars is free. 

The charges on domestic grain also apply at the Twentieth Street 
elevator, Philadelphia & Keading Railway, and at the Keystone 
Elevators & Warehouse Co., near the North Philadelphia Station on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Floating elevator charge. 

Other than regular line steamers, known as chartered or tramp 
steamers, are required to take grain direct from land or stationary 
elevator of the Pennsylvania Railroad. They may, however, have 
the grain lightered and delivered by floating elevator to them at any 
pier or dock within the lighterage limits of Philadelphia, the charge 
for this service being 1 cent per bushel in lots of more than 12,000 
bushels and $120 per lot for 12,000 bushels or less. This charge is 
independent of and in addition to the regular stationary elevator 
charges set forth above. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has no facilities at Philadelphia for 
handling export grain in bulk. 

CARTAGE OR DRAYAGE. 

Conditions for drayage along the water front of Philadelphia are 
very favorable because of the width of Delaware Avenue. This 
marginal street is 150 feet wide. 

Freight arriving at Philadelphia destined to points beyond, via 
rail or water lines, on which no tlirough rates including transfer are 
in effect, will be transferred to or from the connecting carrier either 
by car or wagon at the following rates: 

By car between Pennsylvania Railroad terminals and piers reached 
by Pennsylvania rails, no charge. 

By car between Pennsylvania Railroad terminals and piers of 
Atlantic, Gulf & Pacific Steamship Corporation, no charge. 

By wagon from the Pennsylvania Railroad terminals to the Balti- 
more & Philadelphia Steamboat Co. (Ericsson Line), Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad Co., Bush Line, Merchants & Miners Transportation 
Co., Piers 18 and 20, other Delaware River boat lines, Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway, and Wilson Line, the rate is 7 cents per 100 pounds. 

Between the Baltimore & Ohio, Piers 11, 12, and 22, and the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway, Pennsylvania Railroad, Southern Steam- 
ship Co., and boat lines between Callowhill Street and Washington 
Avenue, all less-than-carload freight, is charged 7 cents per 100 
pounds with a minimum charge of 25 cents. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 285 

Between the Baltimore & Ohio, Piers 11, 12, and 22, and boat lines, 
north of Callowliill Street to Port Richmond, Washington Avenue to 
Snyder Avenue, all less-than-carload freight, is charged 10 cents per 
100 pounds with a minimum charge of 50 cents. 

Domestic traffic. 

Freight rates to or from Philadelphia on carload freight include a 
drayage charge of 3 cents per 100 pounds, provided the carriers' 
revenue is 8 cents per 100 pounds, or $1.60 per ton, net or gross, or 
more. 

If the rate to or from Philadelphia is less than 8 cents per 100 
pounds, or $1.60 per ton, the drayage charge of 3 cents per 100 
poimds, or so much thereof as will make the aggregate charges 8 
cents per 100 pounds, or $1.60 per ton, is added to the rate. 

Foreign traffic. 

Tariff of the Baltimore & Oliio Railroad provides that if freight is 
drayed, the drayage charge up to 3 cents per 100 pounds will be 
absorbed if the rate to or from Philadelphia is 7 cents or more per 100 
pounds, or $1.40 or more per ton. If the rate is less than specified, the 
drayage charge, or so much thereof as will make the total rate 7 cents 
per 100 pounds, or $1.40 per ton, is added. 

ABSORPTION OF TERMINAL CHARGES. 

Car floatage and lighterage charges are absorbed as set forth under 
"Floatage and Lighterage;" drayage charges as set forth imder 
"Cartage or Drayage." 

Rates on export, import, or coastwise freight of 5 cents per 100 
pounds or higher generally include unloading charges between cars 
and piers. 

In connection with switching charges it may be stated that the 
general practice is that the Pennsylvania Railroad absorbs no switch- 
ing charges of other lines except the Philadelphia Belt Line, the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad absorbs switching charges only of the Philadel- 
pliia Belt Line and the Philadelphia & Reading Railway; but the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway absorbs switching charges of all the 
other carriers in Philadelphia. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — This line absorbs the switching charges 
of the Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad on all freight in lots of 12,000 
pounds or more when from or to points on Pennsylvania Railroad 
beyond the limits of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. — Rates on freight in carloads origi- 
nating at Philadelphia & Reading Railway stations or sidings in 
Philadelphia, when destined to stations on the Baltimore & Ohio 
Raiboad and connections west of Philadelphia, include switching 
charges of Philadelphia & Reading Railway. 



286 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Rates on freight in carloads (except coal and coke) requiring Phila- 
delphia Belt Line or Philadelphia & Reading delivery at Philadelphia, 
which originates east and south of Cherry Run, W. Va., and west of 
Philadelphia generally include charges of Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway necessary to effect such delivery. This does not apply to 
traffic originating at Hagerstown and traffic received from Norfolk & 
Western Railway, Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, and pig iron from 
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad or Southern Railway. 

Rates on live stock originating on the Baltimore & Ohio and its 
connections at points west of Cherry Run or Martinsburg, W. Va., 
routed via Western Maryland Railway and Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway, or via Cumberland Valley & Martinsburg Railroad, Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, and Philadelphia & Reading Railway, include 
delivery to steamers at Philadelphia & Reading piers. 

Philadelphia & Reading Railway.— Rates on freight traffic in 
carloads (except coal, coke, hay, straw, grain, lumber and lumber 
products, and petroleum and its products) from points west of 
Buffalo, N. Y., and Pittsbm-gh, Pa., generally include switching 
charges of the Pennsylvania Railroad from Belmont to stations on 
that line in Philadelphia and sidings under their jurisdiction for track 
delivery. 

Switching charges of Pennsylvania Railroad are absorbed on cars 
containing 12,000 pounds or more through, to, or from sidings or 
industries on Commerce Street branch of Pennsylvania Railroad via 
Port Richmond, and on Pennsylvania Railroad south of Wharton 
Lane yard routed via Willow and Noble Streets Station. 

Switching charges of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad are absorbed out 
of rates currently in effect to or from Broad Street Station on carload 
traffic through, to, or from sidings, industries, or freight yards, but 
not freight houses, located on Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tracks in 
Philadelphia south of Callowhill Street to East Side, inclusive; also 
Delaware Branch from intersection at East Side to Reed Street 
(Spreckel's siding), inclusive, when originating at or destined to 
points in the territory on or east of the Niagara River. 

On many commodities, which are enumerated in Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad tariff (I. C. C. 17527), switching charges of that carrier are 
absorbed on less than carload shipments of 12,000 pounds or more 
moving in either direction between Park Junction and private 
sidings to East Side, Pa. 

Switching charges of Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad are absorbed 
on shipments of 12,000 pounds or more through, to, or from the yards, 
sidings, or industries located on its tracks. 

Rates as published on coal, anthracite or bituminous, and coke, 
applying from mines to Willow and Noble Streets Station, Philadel- 
phia, include deliveries on Pennsylvania Railroad private sidings on 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 287 

Commercial Avenue portion of Delaware extension and on Swanson 
Street branch; also to private sidings on Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Delaware Avenue, and to public-delivery yards on Philadelphia Belt 
Line Railroad at Meade Alley and Wharton Lane. 

Rates to Port Richmond on coal and coke include deliveries to 
private sidings on Pennsylvania Railroad, Commerce Street branch, 
except Norris Street yard. 

Switching charges of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad are absorbed on 
sugar in single lots of 20,000 pounds or more, regardless of destina- 
tion when consigned to points beyond Philadelphia, except when 
destined to points on or via Pennsylvania Railroad. Switching 
charges of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad are not absorbed on live 
stock, hay, straw, or manure. 

Current tariff rates applying to Philadelphia on live stock in car- 
loads from points on Norfolk & Western Raihvay and Western Mary- 
land include delivery at West Philadelphia stockyards via Belmont 
and Pennsylvania Railroad. 

TRANSIT PRIVILEGES. 

Carload freight may be diverted or reconsigned in transit on all 
railroads entering Philadelphia. Special rules apply on fresh or 
green fruits and vegetables, grain, hay, straw and seeds, coal and 
coke, some of which are shown below. On other traffic no charge 
is made if order is received before the car leaves the initial point, 
for delivery to other than consignee, when no extra movement is 
involved, or for change in the name of the consignee. 

Each of the rail carriers serving Philadelphia has several tariffs 
which permit the stopping in transit of various commodities for 
certain purposes, such as grain for milling, mixing, etc., lumber for 
dressing and grading, and iron and steel for fabrication. 

The large number of these tariffs renders it impracticable, even to 
enumerate them, there being more than 100 such tariffs published 
by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad alone. 

The following charges apply for the various changes : 

Change in name of consignor $1. 35 

Diversion or reconsignment in transit 2. 70 

Stopping in transit 2. 70 

Change at destination prior to arrival 2. 70 

Diversion to point outside switching limits before placement 6. 30 

Change at destination within 24 hours of arrival 2. 70 

Change at destination more than 24 hours after arrival 6. 30 

Diversion outside switching limits after placement 6. 30 

Diversion within switching limits after placement, no reconsignment charge, 
regular switching rates apply. 

Through rate from original point of shipment to ultimate destination, on date of 
original shipment, plus transit charge applies. 

Only one change in destination is permitted. 



288 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad publishes similar rules and rates for 
diversion and reconsignment of coal and coke. 

Tidewater coal, diversion requested before arrival at destination, 
free. 

Reconsignment witliin switching limits at destination, after arrival, 
$2.70. 

If back or excess haul is required, local rates are charged for extra 
distance hauled, ranging from 12^ cents per gross ton upward. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Railway charge for reconsignment of 
coal at tidewater is $6.30 per car. 

Cars originally consigned to Port Richmond for reshipment by 
water when reconsigned to Port Reading, N. J., for reshipment by 
water, are subject to a charge of 14 cents per ton plus the tariff rate 
from the point of origin to the ultimate destination. 

If diverted prior to passing Wood Lane yard, a charge of $2.70 
is made in addition to the tariff rate, point of origin to ultimate 
destination. 

Carload freight, except grain and other freight in bulk and com- 
modities in tank cars, may be stopped in transit on the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad to finish loading or to partially unload, the charge 
for each car stopped being $6.30. No stop-off will be granted non- 
agency stations or on shipments consigned ''to order." 

Shipments consigned to Philadelphia for domestic delivery and 
reconsigned for export after arrival at destination do not receive the 
benefit of export rates. 

Shipments consigned "to order" will only be diverted or recon- 
signed upon request made in writing accompanied by properly 
indorsed original bill of lading. 

Grain and grain products may be stopped in transit at specified 
points for milling, malting, mixing, etc. The through rate on the 
grain, grain products or by-products, whichever is higher, from the 
initial or basing point to the final destination or port of exportation 
via transit point in effect on date of original shipment plus a transit 
charge on weight of inbound shipment of one-half cent per 100 
poimds, minimum $3.60 per car is assessed by the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad. The time limit is one year after the date of the freight 
biU at transit point. The transit charge on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road varies from one-half cent to 4f cents per 100 pounds. Transit 
privileges are not allowed on ex-lake grain reshipped at proportional 
rates. 

Tariffs of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and Pennsylvania Rail- 
road provide that dressed meats and packing-house products may be 
stored at Philadelphia if the property is to be exported through the 
ports of Philadelphia or New York. The charge for this service is 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 289 

$6.30 per car, the time limit on the Baltimore & Ohio Raihoad being 
six months and on the Pennsylvania nine months from date of 
arrival. 

A separate tariff of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad permits the same 
privilege at Wheeling, W. Va. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad also permits storage of the same com- 
modities at Elmira, N. Y., Altoona, Coatesville, Columbia, Downing- 
ton, Greenbm-g, Harrisburg, Johnstown, Lancaster, and Steelton, Pa., 
when from points west of Pittsburgh, Pa., and Buffalo, N. Y. Such 
traffic may be reconsigned to any point beyond in direct line from the 
point of origin through storage point. The transit charge is $6.30 
per car in addition to the through rate and the time limit is nine 
months from date of arrival at storage point. 

A Pennsylvania Railroad tariff provides that live stock, viz: 
Calves, cattle, goats, hogs, horses, mules, or sheep in carloads may be 
stopped in transit at: Claremont Stockyards, Baltimore, Md.; Jersey 
City Stockyards, Harsimus, N. J. ; Union Stockyards, Lancaster, Pa. ; 
Union Stockyards, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Bennings Stockyards, Wash- 
ington, D. C; West Philadelphia Stockyards, West Philadelphia, Pa., 
if directly intermediate to final destination without additional charge 
for such stop-off. 

Live stock, in carloads, consigned to or beyond the above-named 
yards, may be combined and reconsigned or diverted when the above- 
named stockyards are directly intermediate to the ultimate destina- 
tion. The shipment will be charged at the through rate from the 
point of origin to the final destination in effect on date of the original 
shipment. Substitution of one kind of live stock for another is not 
permitted. Reconsigning' orders must be placed within 72 hours 
after arrival at reconsigning point. A charge of $2.70 per car is made 
for reconsignment or diversion in addition to the freight rate. 

The charges for feed, water, or any service, including yardage, 
made by stockyard companies, are in addition to freight and recon- 
signment charges. 

The tariffs of the Pennsylvania Railroad provide that cotton in 
compressed bales and cotton linters in bales may be stored in ware- 
houses at Philadelphia, having direct track connection with the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and reshipped therefrom in carloads to points 
east of Philadelphia. The transit charge is 6^ cents per 100 pounds 
in addition to the through rate from the point of origin to the ultimate 
destination in effect on the date of the origmal shipment. Storage 
privileges expire 12 months after the date of freight bill at transit 
point. All shipments not reforwarded via Pennsylvania Raihoad 
or not reforwarded within 12 months are subject to the full Phila- 
delphia rate inbound and local rates outbound. 



290 THE POET OF PHrLADELPHIA, PA. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad permits inspection of carload ship- 
ments of bananas by authorized agents of owners at Philadelphia and 
certain other points. 

Various articles of iron and steel in carloads may be stopped in 
transit at certain stations, including Philadelphia, for fabrication and 
may be reshipped in carloads in an unfinished state, knocked down, 
to points on the line over which moved to fabrication point. 

The through rate from the original point of shipment to the ulti- 
mate destination in effect on the date of the original shipment, plus 
a fabrication charge varying from 3 cents to 9 cents per 100 pounds^ 
applies on fabricated material. On export shipments the rate to 
apply is the rate from point of origin to the port in effect on the date 
of the original shipment plus the above-named transit charge. 

A Pennsylvania Railroad tariff provides that tin plate in carloads 
may be forwarded to Chester, Marcus Hook, Point Breeze, or Phila- 
delphia, Pa., at the domestic rates and there manufactured into 
packages or containers, which, when exported either empty or filled, 
entitle the original shipments to the export rate in effect on date of 
shipment from the point of origin. Refund of the difference between 
the domestic and the export rate is made upon satisfactory proof of 
the exportation of the packages or containers. 

MISCELLANEOUS CHARGES AND ALLOWANCES. 

The published tariff rates applicable from Philadelphia on ship- 
ments received from foreign ports include the charge of 5 cents per 
package when made by the United States Government for cording 
and sealing shipments forwarded in bond. . 

Import shipments, less than carloads, when forwarded in bond are 
subject to rule 6 of the official classification which requires that " each 
package, bundle, or loose piece of freight must be plainly, legibly, and 
durably marked by brush, stencil, marking crayon (not chalk) , rubber 
type, metal type, pasted label, tag, or other method which provides 
marks equally plain, legible, and durable, showing the name of only 
one consignee and of only one station, town or city, and State to which 
destined." If such shipments upon delivery to carrier at the port 
bear blind or abbreviated marks, they will be marked to show the 
following information: 

I. T. Entry No 

From 

(Station.) 

To 

(Consignee.) 
Notice. — This package to be delivered to the Chief Officer of U. S. 
Customs at 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 291 

This marking is to be placed as close as possible to the numbers and 
marks of the package and under customs supervision. The charge for 
such marking when done by the representative of the carrier is 15 
cents per piece or package. Import shipments entered for consump- 
tion at the port of entry are subject to the same rule and same charges. 

Import traffic forwarded from ship side or dock of vessel on which 
imported, or from bonded warehouses or appraiser's stores requiring 
to be secured by blocking, staking, or otherwise, on or in cars for safe 
transportation will be so secured by and at the expense of the railroad 
and no charge made against the property for the service except on 
flaxseed, and no freight charges will be assessed on material used. 
On import flaxseed, cars must be lined at expense of shippers or owners ; 
if lined by rail carrier, $5 is charged for the service. 

Carriers will furnish door board protection for cars loaded with 
bananas. If furnished by shipper allowance not to exceed 40 cents 
per car is made. 

Carriers -will furnish cars lined with paper for shipments of green 
coffee in packages, in carloads, if such linings are necessary. If such 
linings are furnished by shippers allowance is made for actual cost, 
not to exceed, however, SI. 50 per car. 

Carriers will furnish wooden dunnage and paper lining for cars of 
sugar in packages, when in lots of 9,000 pounds or more. If furnished 
by shippers an allowance is made of 40 cents to $1.50 per car. No 
freight charges are assessed on the weight of dunnage. 

Side stakes and end boards for flat cars loaded with iron or steel 
rails are furnished when necessary, or allowance made to shippers of 
50 cents to $1.50 per car, no freight charges being assessed on the 
weight of side stakes, end doors, gates, boards, or blocking. 

An allowance is made of cost, not to exceed $1.50 per car, for lumber 
used for coal doors of box cars when such material is furnished by 
shippers. 

For furnishing and installing material such as hay, straw, shavings, 
or sawdust, for protection of perishable property, a charge of $2 
per 100 pounds is made. Wlien such packing is used for the protection 
of tropical fruits and coconuts, the actual weight of the packing so 
used, not exceeding 400 pounds, will be transported free. 

Weighing carload freight at the request of shipper or consignee is 
charged for at rates ranging from 63 cents to $6.30, the usual charge 
when the car is moved less than 1 mile to scales being $1.35 per car. 
Cars to be used for import traffic are weighed empty without charge. 
Weighing on wagon scales at the request of owner, shipper, or con- 
signee is charged for at the rate of 19 cents per loaded vehicle which 
also includes light weighing. No charge is made on outbound traffic 
weighed for convenience of carriers.* 



292 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



STEAMSHIP LINES. 



There are 95 steamship lines operating out of the port of Phila- 
delphia, including 67 in the trans-Atlantic service, of which 32 are 
under American registry and 35 under foreign registry; 10 in the 
coastwise service; 9 in the local and inland service. Nine are oil 
lines. 

There are 49 steamship lines operating out of Philadelphia to foreign 
countries that have regular sailings, of which 4 have weekly sailings, 
17 montlily sailings, and 26 bimontlily sailings. 

Pliiladelphia has steamship service to and from the Pacific coast of 
the United States, British Columbia, Mexico, West Indies, Cuba, 
Jamaica, Central America, South America, United Kingdom, France, 
Holland, Belgium, Scandinavia, Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece, 
Black Sea ports, Poland, Mediterranean ports, India, China, Japan, 
Philippine Islands, and Africa. 

There are several lines of steamers engaged in coastwise traffic from 
and to this port. The Merchants & Miners' Steamship Co. has sailings 
to and from Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Norfolk, Savannah, 
and Jacksonville. 

The American-Hawaiian Line, the Atlantic, Gulf & Pacific Line, 
the Havana Shipping Co., the Luckenbach Steamship Co., the 
Nawsco Line, and the Williams Steamship Co. have regular sailings 
to and from Pacific northwest ports. The Southern Steamship Co. 
has regular sailings to and from Houston, Tex. 

Further information regarding steamship lines is shown below. 



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304 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH LINES. 

Philadelphia has telephone connections with all parts of the 
United States, Canada, and Cuba through the Bell Telephone Co. 
of Pennsylvania. The Keystone Telephone Co. of Pliiladelphia serves 
eastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey. Telegraph com- 
munication is afforded by the Western Union Telegraph Co. and the 
Postal Telegraph & Cable Co. 

COMMERCIAL RADIO STATIONS. 

There are no commercial radio or wireless stations in Philadelphia. 
Messages to be sent by wireless are transmitted by either the Western 
Union Telegraph Co. or the Postal Telegraph & Cable Co. to the Cape 
May, N. J., station of the Radio Corporation of America, where they 
are relayed by wireless to their destination. Radio messages received 
at this station are forwarded by telegraph to their destination. The 
call signal is WCY. United States Shipping Board vessels communi- 
cate through the United States Navy radio station (call signal, NAI) 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. 

NAVAL RADIO STATIONS. 

Philadelphia, Pa., call signal, NAI. Wire connections, Western 
Union, Postal, leased wires, and Bell Telephone Co. of Pennsylvania; 
range, 300 to unhmited. 

This radio station does not control any compass stations. 

SIGNAL STATIONS OF THE PHILADELPHIA MARITIME EXCHANGE ON THE 
DELAWARE BAY AND RIVER. 

Signal stations are operated by the exchange on Delaware Break- 
water, at Reedy Island and New Castle, Del. ; and at Marcus Hook 
Quarantine, Pa.; and during the ice season an auxiliary station is 
placed in commission at Gloucester, N. J. 

A day and night reporting service is maintained at the Delaware 
Breakwater and at Marcus Hook, but at Reedy Island and New 
Castle only day stations are operated. 

Messages can be exchanged by international code with each of the 
stations during the day and with the Delaware Breakwater station 
by night by means of a flashing lamp and the Morse code. 

Vessels navigating the main ship channel, when passing in or out 
of the Delaware Capes, to insure satisfactory results must display 
their signals day or night between the Overfalls Light Vessel and the 
lighthouse on the southern end of the Harbor of Refuge breakwater. 
The station will answer all signals with pennant by day and by one 
long flash followed by one short flash at night. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 305 

The attention of masters of vessels is particularly directed to the 
great possibilities of night communication with signal stations by 
means of a flashing lamp, but the following points should be carefully 
borne in mind in order that the signals transmitted may be clearly 
read : 

1. All other lights in the vicinity of the flashing lamp should be 
obscured. 

2. The flashing lamp should be kept continually pointed directly 
toward the station or vessel. 

3. Care should be taken that proper regularity is observed in the 
length of the flashes and spaces, and that the spaces between the 
words are considerably longer than those between the letters. 

4. Vessels shoijld, if possible, avoid coming within the rays of a 
lighthouse while signaling. 

5. When "Morsing'' a vessel's name, it is desirable that the name 
should be spelled in full. 

Failure on the part of the stations to respond promptly to vessels* 
signals should be reported to the secretary of the exchange at Phila- 
delphia. 



THE FREIGHT-RATE SITUATION. 

In order that a clear understanding may be had of the rate sit ation 
at Philadelphia, it is necessary to consider briefly the history of the 
port differentials as between Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore on east and west bound traffic. 

As far back as 1872, and probably earlier, the westbound rates on 
domestic freight from Boston to Chicago and other western com- 
petitive points have been the same as from New York. 

In 1875 the differentials below the rates from New York which 
prevailed at Philadelphia and Baltimore on westbound traffic were 
as follows, in cents per 100 pounds: 

From: Classes.. 1 2 3 4 5 

Philadelphia 7 7 6 4 3 

Baltimore 10 9 8 6 5 

During 1876 the Philadelphia and Baltimore differentials were un- 
settled, and for a time were on a percentage basis, i. e., Baltimore 
rates were 13 per cent less than the New York rates, etc. 

On April 5, 1877, the then existing trunk lines, viz. New York 
Central & Hudson River Railroad, Erie Railway, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, entered into an agreement 
establishing in lieu of the percentage differences theretofore existing, 
fixed differentials on eastbound and westbound traffic as between 
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. 

The purpose of this arrangement was to avoid all future misunder- 
standing with respect to the geograpliical advantages or disadvan- 
rages of the cities of Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, as 
effected by rail-and-ocean transportation, and with the view of 
effecting an equalization of the aggregate cost of rail-and-ocean trans- 
portation between all competitive points in the west, northwest, and 
southwest and all domestic or foreign ports reached through the cities 
named. 

The eastbound differentials then fixed were: To Baltimore, 3 cents 
per 100 pounds less than to New York, and to Philadelphia 2 cents 
per 100 pounds less than to New York. 

On westbound traffic from Philadelphia the differentials prescribed 
were 6 cents on the first two classes and 2 cents on the lower classes 
below New York, and from Baltimore 8 cents on the first two classes 
and 3 cents on the lower classes below New York. 
306 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 307 

Prior to 1887 different classifications and rates governed tlie east- 
bound and westbound movements between New York and Chicago. 
The eastbound rates were considerably higher on the same classes 
than those applicable on westbound freight, as will be noted from the 
table below. Immediately prior to April, 1887, the eastbound classi- 
fication carried 13 classes; the westbound four fixed classes and a 
fluctuating special class. By the adoption of the so-called official 
classification, made operative concurrently with the act to regulate 
commerce, the traffic was divided into six classes and both classifi- 
cation and rates made uniform on eastbound and westbound traffic. 
The rates operative during 1886 and those which became effective 
April 1, 1887, were as follows: 

Class rates between Chicago and New York.^ 

1886: 123456789 10-11 12-13 Special 

Westbound 75 65 45 35 25 

Eastbound 100 85 70 60 50 45 40 35 30 25 30 

1887 75 65 50 35 30 25 

The class relationship between New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and Boston on aU traffic to and from western points which became 
operative April 1, 1887, was therefore, in cents per 100 pounds, as 
follows : 

Philadelphia, below New York: Classes.. 12 3 4 5 6 

Eastbound 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Westbound 6 6 2 2 2 2 

Baltimore, below New York: 

Eastbound 3 3 3 3 3 3 

Westbound 8 8 3 3 3 3 

Boston, higher than New York: 

Eastbound — Domestic 10 10 5 5 5 5 

Export 

Westbound 

A revision of the export rules was made by Central Freight Asso- 
ciation lines, effective June 15, 1910, and provided as follows: 

(a) That New York rates would apply to the following ports on traffic exported 
therefrom to foreign countries: East Boston, Mass., Levis, Point Levis, and Quebec, 
Quebec, St. John and West St. John, New Brunswick. 

(6) That New York rates plus 1 cent per 100 pounds would apply to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, on traffic exported therefrom to foreign countries. 

(c) That Philadelphia rates would apply to Montreal, Quebec, on export traffic to 
foreign countries. (See note.) 

In the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission case of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York et al. v. New York 

'Appendix G-16, Ann. Kept. I. C. C. 

Note.— Eflective November 22, 1910, the Montreal export basis was corrected to provide that New 
York rates would apply on live stock. (C. F. A.— Inf. 2876, Series A.) 



308 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Central & Hudson River Railroad Co. et al. (Opinion No. 1916, June 
4, 1912) it was held that: 

Differentials under New York on import traffic all-rail and lake-and-rail, from 
Philadelphia and Baltimore to differential territory, should be no greater than those. 
which existed in the latter part of 1908, to wit, in cents per 100 pounds: 

Classes.. 12 3 4 5 6 Commodities. 

Philadelphia differentials 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 

Baltimore differentials 8 8 3 3 3 3 3 

and that the import rates from Boston should not be lower than from New York. 

By later decision of the commission the standard line import rates 
from Boston were restored to the New York basis, effective January 
1, 1914, the class rates being the same as on domestic traffic. Since 
that time several rate increases and one reduction have been made 
but the same relationship was preserved between the North Atlantic 
ports, although the relationship between North Atlantic ports on 
the one hand and South Atlantic and Gulf ports on the other has 
fluctuated. 

On January 1, 1914, the differentials Gulf ports under New York, 
on export and import traffic were, in cents per 100 pounds, as follows: 



2 


3 


4 


5 


6 

















18 


12 


8 


6 


6 



1 

Export 

Import 18 

The general increases in rates authorized in the 5 per cent case in 
1914, the 15 per cent case in 1917, and General Order No. 28 in 1918 
brought about a greater difference between North Atlantic and Gulf 
ports than had theretofore existed. These are shown here in cents 
per 100 pounds: 

Classes.. 12 3 4 5 6 

Export 14 13.5 9.5 6.5 5.5 4.5 

Import 36.5 36 24.5 16.5 13 12 

An adjustment of the rates to and from the Gulf was made in 1919 
which restored the relationship as it existed at the beginning of 1914 
on export traffic and on import traffic from Europe and Africa. On 
import traffic from other countries the rates from the Gulf were made 
the same as from New York. 

The unequal horizontal increases in Ex parte 74 in 1920 and the 
reduction in 1922 has again changed the relationship. The differ- 
entials as at present existing are shown in the tables below. It 
should be observed, however, in connection v/ith these tables, that 
the differentials shown for Portland, Me., and the Canadian ports 
are based on rates via the differential lines or via Canadian lines. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



309 



Import differentials below New York. 
[In cents per 100 pounds.] 



Basis to Cliicago from— 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 





6 

8 

7 
16 

16.5 

1 7 
2 28.5 



6 

8 

7 
14 

15 

5.5 
27.5 



2 

3 

2 
7 

8 

4.5 
19 



2 

3 

2 
6 

6.5 

3 
12.5 


3 

5 
6 

2.5 
9.5 





Philadelphia Pa 


2 


Baltimore Md 




Portland, 'Me 








Quebec Quebec. 




St John New Brunswick 










2 


Newport News Va 




Norfolk Va 








Savannah, Ga 

Brunswick Ga 


6 


Jacksonville Fla 




























Port Arthur Tex . . 









1 On import traffic from countries other than in Europe or Africa. 

2 On import traffic from Europe or Africa. 

Export differentials below New York. 
[In cents per 100 pounds.! 



Basis from Chicago to— 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Boston, Mass 




3 

11 

7 



2 

11 

5.5 




2 

3 
1 1 

4.5 




2 

3 

1 1 

3 




2 

3 
11 

2.5 




Portland, Me ... 












West St.' John, New Brunswick 




Philadelphia, Pa 






2 


Baltimore, Md 




Norfolk, Va . ... 


3 






Hahfax, Nova Scotia 


1 \ 


Charleston, S. C 








Brunswicfe, Ga 












Mobile, Ala 


2 5 


Gulfpc-t, Miss. . 








Galveston, Tex 




Houston, Tex 













1 Higher than New York. 

The following export rate tables show that Philadelphia has advan- 
tage over New York and Boston and is on an equality with Montreal 
from many interior shipping points, but is at a disadvantage as far 
as Baltimore, Norfolk, the South Atlantic, and Gulf ports are con- 
cerned. There is, however, a difference in ocean rates on regular 



310 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



lines to Europe, which gives Philadelphia an advantage over all 
other ports with the exception of Baltimore and Norfolk. 

Export all-rail class rates from Chicago, III. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 

0. 
1 0. 

1 ^• 


142 
142 
140 
139 
139 

135 

135 
165 


124i 
124i 
122i 
121i 
12U 

119 

119 
135 


3 

91J 
91i 

90 

90 
113 


66 
66 
64 
63 
63 

63 

63 

87 


56* 
56i 
54i 
53i 
53i 

54 

54 
70i 


til 


New York 


Philadelphia 


m 


Baltimore 

Norfolk 


44J 
44i 










45 






Jacksonville 










45 


Gulfport - - .... 


61i 


New Orleans 









O. Indicates Official classification. 
S. Indicates Southern classification. 



Tariff authority: 

KeUey's I. C. C. 1100. 
Speiden'sI.C.C. 568. 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1233. 



Export all-rail class rates from Cincinnati, Ohio. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




O. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
/ 0- 

s. 

o. 

■ s. 

o. 

■ s. 


123i 
123i 
12U 
120i 
120i 
107 
115 

107 
134 

115 
137J 


108i 
108i 
106* 
105i 
105i 

SI 

101§ 


82 
82 
80 
79 
79 
70 

7^ 

70 
106 

77 
103 


57i 
57i 
55i 
54i 
54i 
47i 
58 

SI 

54 
76 


49 
49 
47 
46 
46 

J?| 


41 i 


New York 


4l| 


PMladelphia 


39i 




38 


Norfolk 


38i 


Wilmington 


33V 
35 


Charleston 


Savannah 


331 




65* 


Jacksonville 




Pensacola 




Mobile . 


LI 


Gulfport 


New Orleans 







O. Indicates Official classification. 
S. Indicates Southern classification. 



Tariff authority: 

KeUey'sI. C.C. 1100. 
Speiden's I. C. C. .569. 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1205. 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



311 



Export all-rail class rates from Cleveland, Ohio. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 




1 


2 


3 


^ 


5 


6 


Boston 


0. 
O. 
O. 
0. 
0. 

0. 
0. 

' s. 


101 
101 

99 

98 
106§ 

96 

96 
174 


i| 

86i 

84i 

84i 
142i 


67 
67 
65 
64 
70 

64i 

64J 
119 


47 
47 
45 
44 

48 

45 

45 

92 


40 
40 
38 

38i 

1? 


33i 


New York 


334 


PhiladelpMa 


31 i 


Baltimore . . 


30i 


Norfolk 


33| 


Wilmington 








Savannah 


32 


Brunswick 












Mobile 


32 


Gulfport 


65 











O. Indicates Official classification. 
S. Indicates Soutliem classification. 



TariflE authority. 

Kelley's t- C. C. 1100. 
Speiden's I. C. C. 568. 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1205. 



Export all-rail class rates from Pittshurgh, Pa. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





Classifi- 
cation. 






Classes. 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




O. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
S. 

s. 
. s. 

s. 


85 
85 

105i 
164 
186^ 

196 

174 


75 

75 

67* 

65 

92 
141i 
160 

168J 
142i 


56J 

^S' 

53 

69§ 
115 
141i 

149i 
119 


39i 
39i 
37i 
36 
47§ 
88 
119 

126 
92 


34 
34 
3U 
30 
39i 
72 
97 

lOli 

74 


28i 




28i 






Baltimore 


25 


Norfolk 


33 




58i 




80 


Savannah 






84i 






Pensacola 




Mobile 


65 




New Orleans 









O. Indicates Official classification. 
S. Indicates Southern classification. 



Tariff authority: 

Kelley'sI.C. C. 1100. 
Speiden's I. C. C. 488. 
CottreirsI.C.C.362. 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1205. 



312 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Export all-rail class rates from St. Louis, Mo. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Boston 


0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 

/' o- 

s. 

0. 

■ s. 

0. 

s. 


166 
166 
164 
163 
163 
15U 
173 

154J 
177' 

123 
135 


14.5^ 
145^ 
143i 
l42i 
142i 
135i 
146 

135J 
149 

lOSi 
113 


llOJ 
UOJ 
108 
107 
107i 
102 
113 

102 
138 

84i 
97i 


77 
77 
75 
74 
74 
70 
84 

70 
123 


66 
66 
64 
63 
63 
59§ 
68 

59§ 
102 

49 
60 


1 


New York 


Philadelphia 


Baltimore 


49 


Norfolk 


Wilmington 




52i 




49 


Brunswick 


81 










Mobile 


41 




52i 









O. Indicates Official classification. 
S. Indicates Southern classification. 



Tariff authority: 

KeUey's I. C. C. 1100. 
Speiden's I. C. C. 359. 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1233. 



Philadelphia has an advantage over New York and Boston on 
import business, and is at a disadvantage as far as Baltimore, Nor- 
folk, the South Atlantic and Gulf ports are concerned. The situation 
will be apparent from the following rate tables : 

Import all-rail class rates to Chicago, III. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 


142 
142 
136 
134 
126 


124* 
124J 
llSi 
116J 
llOi 


944 
944 
92J 
91i 

86i 

90 
75i 


66 
66 
64 
63 
60 

59i 

63 
53i 


56i 
56, 
54 
.53, 
51 

54 
47 


47i 


New York 


n 


Philadelphia 




4 






Wilmingtoi\ 1 




1 B 


125i 

135 
113i 


109J 

119 

97 




Savannah 


41i 


Brunswick . 










Mobile 


45 




38 











O. Indicates Official clarification. 
X. Applies on traffic imported from Asia, Australia, New Zea- 
land, Central America, South America, and Philippine Islands. 
i/f. Applies on tralBc imported from Europe and Africa. 



Tai-iff authority: 

Curlett'sl.'C. C.A79. 
C. of Ga.I.C. C.2354. 
Southern I. C. C. AS98 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1258. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



313 



Import all-rail class rates to Cindnnati, Ohio. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 


123i 
123. 
117 
115 
107 


108i 
108. 
102i 
lOOi 
944 


82 
82 
80 
79 
75 


57i 
57. 
55 
54 
51 


49 
49 

47 
46 
44 


4U 


New York 




Philadelphia 




Baltimore 


il 


Norfolk 


Charleston 


lOli 

llOJ 
90 


88 

97 
76i 


70 

74 
60i 


47i 


44 
37i 










33i 


Jacksonville 








Mobile 


11 


Gulfport 


New Orleans 







O. Indicates Official classification. 

X. Applies on traffic imported from Asia, Australia, New Zea- 
land, Central America, South America, and Philippine Islands. 
#. Apphes on traffic imported from Europe and Africa. 



Tariff authority: 

Curlett's 1. C. C. A79. 
Southern I. C. C. A89e 
Glenn'sl. C.C. A299. 
Boyd's I. C. C. A1258. 



Import all-rail class rates to Cleveland, Ohio. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0. 
0. 

o. 

0. 
0. 


101 
101 

95 

93 
106i 


1 


67 
67 
65 
64 
70 


47 
47 
45 
44 

48 


40 
40 
38 
37 
40i 


31 i 


New York 


Philadelphia 


Baltimore . ... 


Norfolk 




Charleston ' 
















Savannah i . 
































Jacksonville i 
















Pensacola 


1 ^" 


222 


189 


155J 


134 


107 




Mobile 






89 


New Orleans . . 









iNo through import rates published. 
O. Indicates Official classification. 



2497°- 



Tarifl authority: 

Curlett's I. C. C. A79. 
"i I. C.C. 68. 



314 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Import all-rail class rates to Pittsburgh, Pa. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.; 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 

O. 

1- 


85 
85 
79 
79 
106i 
164 
186J 

196 
222 


74i 

74i 

69i 

93 
141^ 
160 

168J 
189 


56§ 

56| 

55 

55 

70 
115 
1414 

149i 

155i 


If 

38 

48 

119 

126 

134 


34 
34 

1 

97 
lOlJ 

107 


m 

33i 
80 


New York 


Philadelphia 


Baltimore 


Norfolk 




Charleston 








84J 


Jacksonville 






MobUe 




Gulfport 


89 











O. Indicates Official classification. 



Tariff authority: 

Cuiiett'sI.C. C. A79. 
Emerson's I. C. C. 68. 
CottreirsI.C.C.362. 
Speiden's I. C. C. 488. 



Import all-rail class rates to St. Louis, Mo. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect Dec 31, 1922.] 



To- 


Classifi- 
cation. 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0. 
0. 
0. 



0. 

XO. 

#0. 


166 
166 
160 
158 
150 

148 

158 
136i 


1454 
1454 
1394 
1374 
131 

1294 

139 
1174 


1104 
1104 
1084 
107 
103 

102 

106 
914 


77 
77 
75 
74 
71 

70 

74 
644 


66 

64 
63 
61 

594 

63 
56 


55* 


New York 


554 


Philadelphia 


534 




52 


Norfolk 


50 


Wilmington 










Brunswick . . . . 












Mobile 


524 


Gulfport 


45| 









O. Indicates Official classification. 

X. Applies on traffic imported from Asia, Australia, New Zea- 
land, Central America, South America and Philippine Islands. 
#. Applies on traffic imported from Europe and Africa. 



Tariff authority; 

Curlett'sI.C. C. A79. 
C. of Ga. I.e. C. 2354. 
Southern I. C. C. A8969. 
S. A. L. I.C.C. A6654. 
Boyd's I. C.C.A1258. 



Import freight in carloads or less in bond, not released at seaboard, 
is subject to the following rules for assessing freight charges: 

When destined to a point intermediate to an interior ])ort of entry, the through 
rate from seaboard to interior port of entry plus local rate interior port of entry to 
destination applies. 

Wlien destined to a point beyond an interior port of entry, the through rate from 
seaboard to interior port of entry plus local rate beyond applies. 

When arranged with the collector of customs to release import bonded freight at 
destination other than interior port of entry, the through rate from seaboard to the 
point of such release applies. 

When destined to an interior port of entry the through rate from seaboard to the 
port of entry applies. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



315 



It is interesting to note in the following tables that Philadelphia 
freight rates are lower than New York or Boston and higher than 
Baltimore, on rail and lake traffic to and from Cleveland, Ohio, 
Detroit, Mich,, Chicago, 111., and Duluth, Minn. 

Export lake-and-rail class rates. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect December 31, 1922.] 



From— 


To- 


Classes. 


1 


' 


3 


4 


5 


« 




fBoston 


9i 
94 
92 
92 
106 
106 
104 
103 
130 
130 
128 
127 
142 
U2 
140 
139 


83 

81 

80 

93 

93 

91 

90 
1141 
114i 
112i 

un 

124i 
124i 
122i 
121i 


62 
62J 
60i 
59i 
70i 
70i 
68i 
67i 
87J 
87i 
85i 
81i 
94J 
94i 
92* 
91i 


43 
43 
41 
40 
49i 
49 
47i 
46i 
61 
61 
59 
58 
66 
66 
64 
63 


37 
37 
35 
34 
42 
42 
40 
39 
52i 
52 
50i 
49 
56 
56 
54 
53 


32 




New York 
















Baltimore. . 


29 




Boston 


35 




New York 








33 
32 




Baltimore 




Boston 


43i 
43J 
41 
40 

47 




New York 


Chicago 






Baltimore 




Boston 




New York 




Duluth 




45i 
44 




Baltimore 



Governed by official classification. Rates include marine insurance. 

Tariff authority: 

C. &B.I. C. C.661. 

D. & C. I. C. C. 238. 

G. L. T. Co. I. C. C. 47-49. 

Import rail-and-lake class rates. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect December 31, 1922.] 



Cleveland 
Detroit... 
Chicago... 
Duluth... 



Boston 

New York . . 
Philadelphia 
Baltimore. . . 

Boston 

New York... 
Philadelphia 
Baltimore. . . 

Boston 

New York.., 
Philadelphia 
Baltimore. . . 

Boston 

New York.. , 
Pliiladelphia 
Baltimore. . . 



113i 
113i 
107i 
105J 
113i 
113i 
107i 
lOoi 



32i 



Governed by ofllcial classification. Rates include marine insurance 

Tariff authority: 



Agent W. S. Curlett's I. C. C. A81. 



316 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



The following tables show the freight rates on coal from the an- 
thracite and bituminous coal fields of Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, 
Camden, Chester, and Wilmington. 

Philadelphia is the nearest port to the anthracite coal fields and 
this advantage is reflected in the rate structure as will be observed 
from the first of the tables. Some rates on coke are also included. 



Rates on anthracite coal to Philadelphia for delivery to vessels. 
[In cents per ton of 2,240 pounds, in effect December 31, 1922.] 



From groups. 



Carbondale 260 227 202 

Wyoming 227 202 202 

Natalie 

Susquehanna collieries 

Summit 

Schuyllcill division 

Sunbury division 

Lykens vaUey 



Pre- 




pared 


Pea. 


sizes. 




260 


227 


227 


202 


214 


1S9 


227 


202 


227 


202 


214 


189 


214 


189 


214 


189 



Buck- 
wheat 
and 
smaller. 



Tariff authority: Pennsylvania R. R., I. C. C, A. A. 1954. 



Rates on anthracite coal to Port Richmond for transshipment to vessels. 
[Rates in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds in effect Jan. 1, 1923.] 





Destined inside capes of Delaware. 


Destined beyond capes of Delaware. 


From districts. 


Pre- 
pared 
sizes. 


Pea. 


Buck- 
wheat 
No. 1. 


SmaUer 
sizes. 


Pre- 
pared 
sizes. 


Pea. 


Buck- 
wheat 
No. 1. 


SinaUer 


ShamoMn 


239 
209 

239 
209 

258 
228 


214 
189 

214 
189 

227 
202 


214 
189 

214 
189 

220 
195 


214 
189 

214 
189 

220 
195 


239 
227 

239 
227 

258 
246 


214 

202 

214 
202 

227 
215 


214 
189 

214 
189 

220 
195 






214 


Schuylkill 


176 


Lykens Valley 

Schuylldll Haven.... 




Auburn 




Stony Creek 








Hamburg . 




Morrisville 








Kneass . 




Hunter 










220 


Deiblers 


182 






otto 




Latshaw 




Domsife 









Coal is billed in all cases to Port Richmond at local rates shown on upper lines, after evidence of dumping 
into vessels destined as above, rates are adjusted to those shown on lower lines. 
Tariff authority: Philadelphia & Reading, I. C. C. Nos. A1108, 1109, 1110, 1111, 1112, 1113. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



317 



Comparison of rates on anthracite coal from certain producing points to North Atlantic 
ports for transshipment to vessels, including dumping. 

[Rates in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds in effect Jan. 1, 1923.] 



Pre- 
pared 
sizes. 



Buck- 
wheat 
No. 1. 



Smaller 
sizes. 



Shamokin 

Mahiinoy 

Lorberry 

Lykens V'alley.... 
Schuylldll Haven 

Landingville 

Auburn 

Stony Creek 

Port Clinton 

Hamburg 

Morrisville 



Jersey City, N. J., Pier 18 

>Port Reading, N.J 

Port Richmond, Pa. (destined beyond! 

capes). / 

Port Richmond, Pa. (destined inside\ 

capes). J 

•Wilmington, Del 

B altimore, Md 



214 
240 



Coal for these pomts, except Port Reading, N. J., is billed at local rates, which are later reduced to the 
rates shown upon presentation of evidence of dumping into vessels. 

Tariff authority: Philadelphia and Reading, I. C. C. Nos. A1105, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1112, 1113, 1114, 1115, 
1116, 1117, 1118. 



Rates on bituminous coal from districts shoivn, to Philadelphia, Camden, Chester, and 

Wilmington. 

[Rates in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





Tc^ 


From groups— 


Camden, 
Atlantic 
City R. R. 
delivery. 


Philadel- 
phia, 
Chester, 
Wilming- 
ton, 
Baltimore 

& Ohio 
delivery, i 


Philadel- 
phia, 
Camden, 
Chester, 
Wilming- 
ton, PhUa- 
delphia & 
Reading 
delivery. 


Delaware 
River piers, 

Wilming- 
ton, for 
delivery to 

vessels." 


Port 
Richmond 
for delivery 
to vessels 
destined 

inside 

Delaware 

Capes. 


Port 
Richmond 
for delivery 
to vessels 
destined 
outside 
Delaware 
Capes. 




284 
284 
309 


284 
284 
309 
324 
309 
324 


284 
284 
309 


259 
259 
284 


259 
259 

284 


232 


Meyersdale 


232 


ConnellsviLle 


257 


Ohio River 






309 
324 


309 
324 


284 
299 


284 
299 


257 


Gauley 


272 







1 Rates to Chester Include Pennsylvania R. R. switching up to 28 cents per ton. 

2 Dehvered alongside wharf, 19 cents per ton additional. If dumped on pier and later delivered to ■^ 
38 cents per ton additional. 

Tarifl authority: Baltimore & Ohio, I. C. C, C. & C, 2073, 2240, 2255. 



318 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Rates on bituminous coal from districts shown to Philadelphi 
[Rates in cents per ton of 2,240 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





To- 


From groups— 


Philadel- 
phia, Penn- 
sylvania 

R.R. 
delivery. 


Philadel- 
phia, Phila- 
delphia & 
Reading 
delivery. 


Philadel- 
phia for 
delivery to 
vessels de- 
stined in- 
side Del- 
ware Capes. 


Philadel- 
phia for 
delivery to 
vessels de- 
stined out- 
side Dela- 
ware Capes. 


Clearfield Branch . ... 


1 284 

284 


284 
284 
304 


259 
259 






232 










West Virginia division, Western Maryland Ry 


284 
309 
284 

} » 

309 
324 

} 2., 

309 
324 
324 
324 
309 


264 
289 
259 
269 

284 

299 
269 
284 
299 
299 
299 
284 




Belington Branch, Western Maryland Ry 

Indiana Branch, Pennsylvania R. R 






284 
294 

309 

324 
294 

309 
324 
324 
324 
309 


232 






Ligonier Valley R. R 


242 


Monongahela division, Baltimore & Ohio R. R 








MonongahelaRy " 






272 






Dent's fiun R. R' " 


242 


Lake Erie, FranUin & Clarion R. R 


257 






Schenlpj, Kittanning, Pa 


272 




272 











Tariff authority: Pennsylvania R. R., I. C. C, A. A. 1800, 1966. 

Rates on coke from points named to stations in Philadelphia and Chester. 
[Rates in cents per ton of 2,000 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





From— 


To— 


Chester, 

by-product 

coke. 


Steelton, 
by-product 

coke, coke 

breeze, and 

dust. 


Bethlehem, Pa. 




Screened. 


Run-of- 
oven. 


Breeze. 


Philadelphia 


139 
139 
139 
151 
113 
113 
139 


227 


239 
239 
239 
239 
252 
252 
239 


176 
176 
176 
176 
189 
189 
176 


139 




139 


Frankford 


227 


139 


Chestnut Hill 


139 






151 






151 


Wayne Junction 


227 


139 







Tarifl authority: Pennsylvania & Reading, I. C. C, C164, 166, 167. 

Rates on coke, coke ashes, coke breeze, and coke dust from points named to Philadelphia, 

Camden, Chester, and Wilmington. 

[Rates in cents per ton of 2,000 pounds in effect Dec. 31, 1922.] 





To- 


From— 


All Penn- 
sylvania 
R. R. sta- 
tions in 
Philadel- 
phia. 


Camden. 


Wilming- 
ton, 
Chester, 
Marcus 
Hook, 

Edgemoor. 


Greenwich 
Pier, in- 
cluding 

delivery to 
vessel. 




338 
333 
353 
353 
227 
239 
227 
88 


338 
358 
378 
378 


313 
333 
353 
353 


282 




282 


ConneUsville Group .... 


302 


White Rock Group 


302 


















1202 
S151 




Swedeland Pa . 


151 


113 







I Wilmington only. 2 Rate to Wilmington 181 cents. 

Tariff authority: Pennsylvania R. R., I. C. C, A. A., 1825, 1840, 1842, 1875. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



319 



Philadelphia has lower export freight rates on iron and steel 
articles from the important producing points in Pennsylvania, West 
Virginia, and Maryland than other north Atlantic ports except 
Baltimore, as shown in the following tables: 

Rates on iron and steel articles, carloads, from Connellsville, Pa., Johnstown, Pa., Mid- 
land, Md., Cumberland, Md., and Uniontown, Pa., to Atlantic ports. 

[Rates in cents in effect December 31, 1922.] 





Per ton of 2,210 pounds. 


Manufac- 


To— 


BiUets, 

blooms, 

etc. 


Pig iron. 


and steel 
articles 
(per 100 
pounds). 


Baltimore, Md.: 


453* 
340 

579i 
400 

529 
400 

617i 
400 

479 
360 


428i 
320 

5541 
380 

501 
380 

5791 
380' 

4531 
340 


tP 


Export. 


Boston, Mass.: 


35 




24 


New York, N. Y.: 


32 




24 


NorfoUc, Va.: 
Domestic 


38 




24 


Philadelphia, Pa: 
Domestic 


29i 


Export 


22 







Tariff authority: Baltimore & Ohio, I. C. C. 18330. 

Export rates on manufactured iron and steel articles from producing points to Atlantic 

ports. 

[Rates in cents in effect December 31, 1922.] 



Cumberland, Md . . . 
Punxsutawney, Pa. 

Johnstown, Pa 

Latrobe, Pa 

Bessemer, Pa 

ConneDsviUe, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa 

Erie, Pa 

Buffalo, N.Y 



Per ton of 2,240 pounds. 



Billets, blooms, etc. 



Boston, 

New 
York. 



Phila- 
del- 
phia. 



Balti- 
more. 



Pig iron. 



Boston 
New 
York. 



Phila- 
del- 
phia. 



Balti- 
more. 



Manufactured iron a 
steel articles 
(per 100 pounds). 



Boston, 


Phila- 


New 


del- 


York. 


pliia. 


24 


22 


25i 


23i 


24 


22 


24 


22 


254 


23i 


24 


22 


254 


23i 


231 


23J 



Balti- 
more. 



1 Does not apply to Boston. 

Tariff authority: Pennsylvania R. R., G. O., I. C. C. 12559. 



320 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Rates on iron and steel articles, carloads, beiiueen Philadelphia and points named, in either 

direction. 



[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect December 31, 1922.] 



Allentown, Pa. . . 
Bethlehem, Pa . . 
Bloomsburg, Pa. 
Catasauqua, Pa . 



Coatesville, Pa 11 

Columbia, Pa 14J 

Harrisburg, Pa 16 

Lancaster, Pa 14J 

Lebanon, Pa 14^ 

Same rates also apply to and from Port Richmond, Hog Island, and Eddystone. 

Tariff authority: Philadelphia & Reading, I. C. C. J75fi5. 



Newberry, Pa 21 

PotlsviUe, Pa 16 

Reading, Pa 12J 

Shamokin, Pa 21 

Shippensburg, Pa 25 

Steelton, Pa 16 

Suiibury, Pa 21 

Wyomissing, Pa 12i 



On flour and grain shipments from Chicago, St. Louis, Cairo, 
Minneapohs, and Kansas City the all-rail reshipping rates to Phila- 
delphia for export are lower than to all other North Atlantic ports 
except Baltimore and Norfolk and are the same as to Montreal, as 
will be noted in the following tables: 

Domestic and export carload reshipping rates onfiourfrom points named to Atlantic ports. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect October 31, 1922.] 



From- 



City. 



Halifax, Nova Scotia: 

Domestic 

Export 

St. John, New Brunswick: 

Domestic 

Export 

Quebec, Quebec: 

Domestic 

Export 

Montreal, Quebec: 

Domestic 

Export 

Portland, Me. (G. T.): 

Domestic 

Export 

Boston, Mass.: 

Domestic 

Export 

New York, N. Y.: 

Domestic 

Export 

Philadelphia, Pa.: 

D omestic 

Export 

Baltimore, Md.: 

Domestic 

Export 

Tariff authority: Kelley's I. C. C 



26J 



43i 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



321 



Domestic and export carload reshipping rates on grain from points named to Atlantic ports. 
[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect October 31, 1922.] 



Chicago. 



Minneap- 
olis. 



Kansas 
City. 



Halifax, Nova Scotia: 

Domestic 

Export 

St. John, New Brunswick 

Domestic 

Export 

Quebec, Quebec: 

Domestic 

Export 

Montreal, Quebec: 

Domestic 

Export 

Portland, Me. (G. T.): 

Domestic 

Export 

Boston, Mass.: 

Domestic 

Export 

New York, N. Y.: 

Domestic 

Export 

Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Domestic 

Export 

Baltimore, Md.: 

Domestic 

Export 



22i 



21i 



56i 



67i 
40 

57 
40 

m 

40^ 

m 

40 

47J 
40 

45§ 



Tariff authority: Kelley's I. C. C. 839-1126. 

Class rates via water and rail from Philadelphia, Pa., to points on Boston & Maine 
Railroad via Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. to Boston and Boston 6c Maine 
Railroad to destination. 

[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect Nov. 1, 1922.] 



To— 


Classes. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Alton, N. H. 


79 
82 
72.5 

7815 

71 

66.5 

71 

71 

66.5 

89.5 

82 

74.5 

76 

89.5 

56.5 

85 
66.5 


6L5 

76 

66.5 

61 

60 

61 

61 

60 

78.5 

69 

63.5 

65.5 

78.5 

47.5 

60 

72.5 

ao 


56.5 

58.5 

50.5 

60 

54 

49.5 

49.5 

49.5 

49.5 

49.5 

59.5 

56.5 

53 

53 

59.5 

40.5 

49.5 

60 

49.5 


4.3.5 

43.5 

40.5 

43.5 

43.5 

36.5 

36.5 

38 

36.5 

36.5 

42.5 

42.5 

41.5 

41.5 

42.5 

31 

38 

43.5 

36.5 


31.5 

31.5 

30.5 

33 

31 

30.5 

30.5 

30.5 

30.5 

30.5 

36.5 

32.5 

30.5 

30.5 

36.5 

27 

30.5 

32.5 

30.5 


27 


Ashland, N. H 




Gloucester, Mass 


27 


Intervale, N. H.. 


27 


Laeonia, N. H 




Lawrence, Mass 


27 


LoweU.Mass 


27 


Lynn, Mass . . . 


27 


Manchester, N. H 




Nashua, N. H 


27 


Norwich, Vt 


30 


Portland, Me 








Rochester, N. H 


27 


St. Johnsbury, Vt 


30 


Springfield, Mass 




Waltham, Mass 


27 


Wolfeboro, N. H.. 


27 


Worcester, Mass 


27 







Governed by official classification. Rates include marine insurance. 

Tariff authority: Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. 1799; I. C. C. No. 941. 



322 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Class rates via ivater and rail from PhiladeljMa to southern points via Ocean Steamship 
Co. of Savannah and connecting rail and water carriers. 

[Rates in cents per 100 pounds, in effect Nov. 1, 1922.] 



Atlanta, Ga 

Birmingham, Ala. . 
Chattanooga, Tenn 

Decatur, Ala 

Fitzgerald, Ga 

Gadsden, Ala 

Helena, Ark 

Jackson, Miss 

Kimbrough, Ala. . . 
Lawrenceville, Ga. 

Mempliis, Term 

New Orleans, La... 

Oxford, Ala 

Pensacola, Fla 

Quitman, Ga 

Rome, Ga 

Sheffield, Ala 

Thomasville, Ga. . , 

Valdosta, Ga 

Woodward, Ala 

York, Ala 



180 

187.5 

180 

1S9 

180 

187.5 

211.5 

211.5 

218. 5 

180 

202.5 

218.5 

187.5 

218.5 

180 

ISO 

189 

180 

180 

187.5 

202.5 



155 

160.5 

155 

162 

155 

160.5 

182 

182 

188 

155 

174 

188 

160.5 

188 

155 

155 

162 

155 

155 

160.5 

174 



135 

141 

135 

142.5 

135 

141 

160.5 

160.5 

166 

135 

154 

166 

141 

166 

135 

135 

142.5 

135 

135 

141 

154 



115.5 

122 

115 

122 

115 

122 

135. 5 

135.5 

140 

115 

129.5 

140 

122 

140 

115.5 

115 

122 

115.5 

115 

122 

129.5 



110 
110 
114 
94 

105.5 
114 



78 
83 
78 
81 
78 
83 
91 
91 
94 
78 
87.5 



Governed by southern classification. Rates include marine insurance. 

Tariff authority: Ocean Steamship Co. of Savannah, book No. 23; I. C. C. No. 512. 



Commodity rates via water and rail from Philadelphia to Southern points via Ocean 
Steamship Co. of Savannah and connecting rail and water carriers. 

[Rates in cents per 100 pounds in effect November 1, 1922.] 



Commodities. 



Agi-icul- 
tural im- 
plements 



Asphalt. 



Cereals. 



Iron and 

steel 
carload. 



Molasses 
and 
sirup. 



Soap. 



Terra 
cotta. 



Atlanta, Ga , 

Birmingham, Ala . . . . 
Chattanooga, Tenn. .. 

Decatur, Ala 

Fitzgerald, Ga 

Gadsden, Ala 

Lawrenceville, Ga 

Oxford, Ala 

Quitman, Ga 

Rome, Ga 

Sheffield, Ala 

Thomasville, Ga 

Valdosta, Ga 

Woodward, Ala 



43.5 

47 

43.5 

47 

43.5 

47 

43.5 

47 

43.5 

43.5 

47 

43.5 

43.5 

47 



Governed by Southern classification. Rates include marine insurance. 

Tariff authority: Ocean Steamship Co. of Savannah book No. 23; I. C. C. No. 612. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 323 

Proportional class rates via all water from Philadelphia to points named. 
[Rates ia cents per 100 pounds in effect December 1, 1922.] 





To- 


Classes. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Savannah, Ga 


99 
116 


81 
98.5 


64 

81 


50.5 
57 


41.5 
45 


33 5 


Jacksonville Fla 


34.5 





Governed by Southern classification. Above rates do not include marine insurance. 
Tariff authority: Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. No, 1899; I. C. C. No. 998. 





To- 


Classes. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




}'- 


65.5 


50.5 


... 


3. 




JacksonviUe, Fla 


25.5 







Governed by ofBcial classification. Above rates apply on traflBc originating in States of Colorado, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North 
Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia, Wisconsin, or Wyoming. These rates do 
not include marine insurance. 

Tariff authority: Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. No. 1885; I. C. C. 987. 





To- 


Classes. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




} e. 


57 


43.5 


33 


27 




Jacksonville, Fla 


21 







Governed by Official classification. Above rates apply on traffic originating in States of California, 
Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, or Washington, marine insurance included 
Tariff authority: Merchants & Miners Transportation Co. No. 1956; I. C. C. 1020. 





To- 


Classes. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


' 


6 




138 


115.5 


95 


82 


63.5 









Governed by Western classification. These rates do not include marine insurance. 
Tariff authority: Southern Steamship Co. No. 4E; I. C. C. No. 33. 



TRANS-ATLANTIC RATES. 



The berth rates to the United Kingdom and Continent are the same 
from all ports in the North Atlantic range extending from Portland, 
Me., to and including Norfolk, Va. They are subject to frequent 
changes. Charter rates fluctuate in accordance with the demand for 



324 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
OCEAN RATES TO UNITED KINGDOM. 



The following are the ocean freight rates on important commodities 
in effect May 22, 1922, from North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and 
Gulf ports to the United Kingdom. 



South Atlantic. 



North Atlantic. 



Agricultural im- 
plements. 
Boots and shoes . . . 

Cotton piece goods . 

Flour in bags 

Grain 

Machinery and parts 



Packing-house prod- 
ucts. 
Paper, newsprint. . . 
1 cargo rate... 



40 cents per cubic foot; 80 

cents per 100 pounds. 
45 cents per cubic foot; 90 

cents per 100 pounds. 

do 

26 cents through June 

21 cents through June 

45 cents per cubic foot; 90 

cents per 100 pounds up 

to 2 tons. 
75 cents per 100 pounds, 

ordinary stowage.' 

75 cents per 100 pounds 

45 cents per cubic foot; 90 

cents per 100 poimds. 



37 cents per cubic foot; 72 J 
cents per 100 pounds. 

42 cents per cubic foot; 82 J 
cents per 100 pounds. 

do 

19 cents through May 

Open, no grain movement . 

42 cents per cubic foot; 82^ 
cents per 100 pounds. 

67i cents, ordinary stow- 
age. 

67i cents per 100 poimds. . 

42 cents per cubic foot; 82i 
cents per 100 pounds. 



35 cents per cubic foot; 65 

cents per 100 pounds. 
40 cents per cubic foot; 75 

cents per 100 poimds. 
Do. 
19 cents through May. 
Open (about 14 cents). 
40 cents per cubic foot; 75 

cents per 100 pounds up 

to 2 tons. 
Open.i 

75 cents per 100 pounds. 

40 cents per cubic foot; 75 

cents per 100 pounds. 



1 The rates on packing-house products are for ordinary stowage. In cases where cold storage is desired 
75 cents per hundred additional should be added for cold storage of 32° or less, 60 cents for over 32° and imder 
40°, and 40 cents for 40°. 

In eases where the rate is shown in cubic feet and pounds it is optional with the ocean carrier as to which 
shall apply. 



COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

IMPORTS. 

The statistics of imports at Pliiladelphia presented in this report 
show that during the period 1911-1920, 61.5 per cent of the imports 
were heavy raw materials. Of this amount, 19.4 per cent was 
iron ore, 16.2 per cent sugar, 13.5 per cent petroleum and petroleum 
products, 4.7 per cent manganese ore, 4.4 per cent sulphur, and 
3.3 per cent nitrate of soda. The remaining 38.5 per cent represents 
all other commodities imported. The average annual imports 
during the ten-year period were 2,778,655 tons. 



The exports like the imports consist principally of heavy com- 
modities. During the ten-year period from 1911 to 1920, petroleum 
and petroleum products comprised 27.6 per cent of all the exports, 
coal 26.2 per cent, grain and flour 19.8 per cent, iron and steel 4.6 
percent, and lumber and manufactures 1.2 per cent. The average 
annual exports during the ten-year period were 3,882,453 tons. 

DOMESTIC COMMERCE. 

The domestic commerce at this port consists mainly of coal, sand, 
gravel, petroleum, petroleum products, sugar, molasses, and fertilizer. 
The tonnage is very large,' since it includes the local business on 
the Delaware Bay and River, which can not be segregated from 
the traffic pertaining solely to the port. In 1920 this local traffic 
amounted to 7,417,632 tons, while other domestic traffic, including 
coastwise receipts and shipments, amounted to 3,513,895 tons. Of 
the total domestic traffic during the ten-year period from 1911 to 
1920, coal constituted 36 per cent. 

Details regarding the commerce are given in the following tables: 



326 



THE rOIiT OF PHHuiDELPHIA, PA. 

















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THE PORT OF PHUADELPHIA, PA. 



327 



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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Principal full cargo of coastwise arrivals. 
[Cargoes of regular line steamships not included.] 



Character of cargo. 


1920 


1921 


Character of 


cargo. 


1920 


1921 


Asphalt bbls.. 

Bituminous coal — tons. . 


18,500 
73,597 


43,248 
1,497 
21,925 
4,500 
444 
121 


Oils 

Phosphate rock 

Piling 

Pineapples 

Piirpwood.'.'.'.'.' 

Rosin 

Sand 

Sugar 

Sulphur 

Ties 


....bbls.. 

tons.. 

....tons., 
(canned), 

.'.".'cords.'. 
....bbls.. 
tons.. 

(mats.. 
..<sacks.. 

[bags... 
....tons.. 
ties.. 


11,962,181 
64,974 
4,000 

73,583 
10,310 
62,562 
10,878 
898,463 
175,239 
162,532 
84,281 
281,868 


13,092,126 
36,641 
10, 520 


Coal-tar products. . .tons. . 

Cotton bales.. 

Caustic tons. . 

Feldspar tons.. 


3,550 

5,434 

166 

1,530 

160,986 

321 

30,505,971 

36,375 

1,850,000 

2,818 


75,625 
17,279 
101,343 






Logwood tons. . 

Lumber feet.. 

Mine props tons. . 

Molasses galls. . 

Nitrate of soda tons.. 


110 

50,538,670 

47,660 

985,381 

1,100 




63,298 

746,131 

25,840 

1,190,394 



Principal full cargo of coastwise clearances. 
[Cargoes of regular line steamships not included.] 



Character of cargo. 


1920 


1921 


Character of cargo. 


1920 


1921 


Acid 

Coal, anthracite. . 
Coal, bituminous. 


..tons.. 
..tons.. 
..tons.. 


12,200 
685,204 
754,451 


3,200 

820,610 

479,903 

1,300 

9,334 

3,248,310 

4,977 

10, 592 

747,650 

185,000 

2,537,500 

1,372,260 


Oils, gas 

Oils, lubricating.. 

; Oils, refined 

Phosphate 

Sand 

Steel 

Steel plates 

Steel rails 

Sugar 


..galls.. 
..galls.. 
..galls.. 


5,673,150 
27,013,850 
12,075,644 


26,935,336 

20,030,636 

16,826,111 

11,010 


Fertilizer 

Gasoline 

Iron pipe 


..tons.. 
..gaUs.. 
..tons.. 
..tons.. 
. .gaUs. . 
galls 


6,080 

839,200 

1,496 

4,500 

3,632,350 


..tons.. 


1,250 


3,300 
1,573 


..tons.. 


1,950 


468 
15,768 


Naphtha 

Oils creosote 


tons 


4,117 
1,492 


6,349 


Tankage 

Tie plates 

! 


..tons.. 


4,834 








972 


OilsifueL.; 


.galls.. 


4,818,715 









Value of imports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. 



Calendar year. 


Boston. 


Philadelphia. 


Baltimore. 


1916 


$210,900,243 
217,905,287 
295,915,214 
299,364,999 
392,752,807 
164,922,499 


$95,801,175 
109, 485, 782 
115,011,117 
153,819,044 
282, 163, 120 
122,302,015 


$27,808,916 




43,972,790 




35,982,665 


1919 


38,900,438 




69,824,171 


1921 


41,12^,328 







The progress of the important Atlantic and Gulf ports in the value 
of their export trade is roughly indicated by the following tables 
showing values of exports from 1902 to 1921: 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



341 



Values of exports at principal customs districts of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, years ending 
June 30, 1902 to 1921. 



Massachu- 
setts. 



Philadel- 
phia. 



Virginia. 



New 
Orleans. 



1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1900, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 



,404,304 
,126,444 
,845,772 
, 804, 492 
,739,647 
, 872, 147 
,051,068 
,157,558 
,516,789 
,534,0,S2 
,692,171 
, 552, 657 
,715,181 
,475,677 
, 229, 946 
,578,485 
314,900 
688,007 
604, 919 
740,620 



$490,361,695 

505,829,694 

508, 808, 013 

524,726,005 

607,160,314 

627,949,857 

701,002,913 

607,239,481 

651,980,356 

772,552,449 

817,945,803 

917,935,988 

864,546,338 

1,193,581,088 

2,332,286,213 

3,053,119,504 

2,560,857,383 

3,202,751,677 

3,382,234,893 

2,54.5,015,751 



$80,383,403 
73,531,908 
71,393,254 
63,278,070 
82,564,389 
94,832,480 
109,201,436 
84,280,440 
73,206,343 
69,956,380 
09,009,730 
76,315,344 
65,182,514 
90,666,401 
193,495,296 
404,471,031 
425,072,004 
488,812,868 
449,599,705 
322,296,316 



$80,532,512 
81,704,497 
82,830,104 
91,215,058 
109,92.5,046 
104, 808, 952 
89,988,505 
77,550,658 
77,381,507 
85, 120, 843 
92,210,877 
116,474,439 
109, 090, 231 
131, 978, 498 
180,703,374 
374, 033, 121 
300,717,118 
314,270,350 
338,937,433 
300,078,352 



$40,593,105 
34,205,890 
25,754,248 
23,428,103 
32,140,-549 
23,292,116 
20,900,517 
17,472,955 
13,215,079 
15,097,412 
18,347,2.55 
29,207,188 
25,625,255 
89,307,089 
107,340,995 
137,011,981 
99, 420, 284 
103,543,611 
226,008,288 
324,798,241 



$134, 486, 863 
149,072,519 
148, 595, 103 
150,-930,947 
150,479,326 
170,502,428 
159,455,773 
14-1,981,625 
140,376,560 
172,835,293 
149,100,910 
109,980,277 
193,839,961 
209,373,159 
211,498,749 
303,510,401 
399,995,933 
490,498,234 
589, 390, 126 
614,034,334 



$96,722,066 
104,121,087 
145, 316, 457 
126,182,043 
186,317,652 
237, 308, 494 
161,352,201 
189,404,335 
173,178,992 
220,504,917 
218,140,097 
281,457,858 
255,767,608 
230,391,960 
190,248,657 
206,279,258 
226,833,740 
310,577,747 
598, 239, 227 
550,032,922 



' Calendar year. 

Average annual values of exports through principal customs districts of the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts, hy five-year periods. 



District. 


First period, 
1902 to 1906, 
inclusive. 


Second 
period, 1907 

to 1911, 
inclusive. 


Third period, 
1912 to 1916, 
inclusive. 


Fourth period, 
1917 to 1921, 
inclusive. 


Increases, 

fourth period, 

over first 

period. 


Per cent 
increase, 

fourth 

period, 
over first 

period. 


Massachusetts 

New York 


$93,384,131 
520,977,144 
74,230,216 
89,242,655 
31,237,603 
146,714,151 
127,731,861 


$83,026,328 
672,158,211 
86, 320, 615 
86,970,093 
17,995,613 
157,642,335 
196,361,787 


$88,733,126 
1,225,259,086 

98,945,809 
126,211,483 

53,965,556 
186,758,611 
235,202,436 


$223,385,386 
2,948,795,841 
430,050,384 
326,808,476 
178, 156, 481 
479,487,205 
390,392,578 


$130,001,255 
2,421,818,697 
355,820,168 
237,565,821 
146,918,878 
332,773,054 
262,660,717 


139.2 


Philadelphia 


479.3 
266 2 


Maryland 




470.3 






205.7 





Exports of domestic grain and fiour from principal Atlantic and Gulf customs districts, 
1913 to 1920.^ 

[Quantities expressed in bushels; flour converted to bushels on basis of 4.5 bushels to the barrel.] 

FLOUR (WHEAT AND RYE). 



Year. 


Massa- 
chusetts. 


New York. 


Philadel- 
phia. 


Maryland. 


Virginia. 


New 
Orleans. 


Galveston. 


Total 

for 7 

districts. 


1913... 


457,123 


16,948,129 


5,375,538 


4,236,948 


8x9,301 


3,742,123 


1,534,644 


33,113,806 


1914... 


1,236,537 


18,396,985 


3,980,146 


3,661,956 


635,512 


5,543,131 


1,547,059 


35,001,326 


1915... 


2,306,929 


32,511,942 


5,517,931 


4,624,114 


1,611,643 


9,356,071 


1,957,666 


57,886,296 


1916... 


1,381,495 


28,559,648 


4,798,935 


6,343,686 


5,386,176 


9,755,077 


1,215,370 


55,440,387 


1917... 


1,130.566 


17,333,977 


3,669,187 


10,211,067 


2,470,959 


9,487,359 


804,181 


45,107,296 


1918... 


6,788,016 


31,578,835 


8,683,636 


9,751,981 


9,623,267 


12,568,567 


9,121,603 


88,115,905 


1919... 


4,296,212 


37,976,485 


15,689,794 


11,789,739 


11,434,141 


11,382,808 


3,841,965 


99,411,144 


1920. . . 


885,361 


35,329,356 


13,913,019 


8,471,407 


6,677,496 


7,277,485 


1,797,777 


74,351,901 


1921... 


50,920 


33,717,352 


3,100,639 


2,764,687 


542,206 


13,633,002 


1,174,837 


54,983,643 



1 Compiled from reports of the Department of Commerce. 



342 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Exports of domestic grain and flour from principal Atlancic and Gulf customs dis 
tricts, 1913 to 1920 — Continued. 

[Quantities expressed in bushels; flour converted to bushels on basis of 4.5 bushels to barrel.] 

WHEAT. 



Year. 


Massa- 
chusetts. 


New York. 


Philadel- 
phia. 


Maryland. 


Virginia. 


New 
Orleans. 


Galveston. 


Total 

for 7 

districts. 


1913 


2,540,^59 
4,223,852 
5,640,318 
3,775,018 
1,099,412 
4,642,029 
9,351,179 
4,174,554 
183,160 


25,968,451 
21,877,705 
52,909,697 
40,490,159 
37,981,170 
22,739,855 
39,131,660 
36,148,606 
22,476,576 


7,387,240 
6,915,772 
20,254,159 
27,242,120 
24,539,807 
16,752,320 
31,517,322 
17,685,343 
15,443,926 


6,518,749 
12,893,028 
2:j,015,039 
28,611,988 
27,569,947 
17,258,200 
25,501,321 
27,798,338 
15,602,542 




14,365,761 
12,186,362 
48,872,053 
19,492,611 
25,270,549 
9,401,?37 
12,785,563 
48,695,864 
57,031,709 


13,213,697 
10,057,579 
50,717,729 
28,987,212 
21,822,067 
4,576,605 
17,587,960 
46,561,406 
92,122,075 


69 994,760 


1914... 
1915... 
1916... 
1917... 
1918... 
1919... 
1920. . . 
1921... 


521,108 

7,053,520 

8,289,103 

115,352 

345, 835 

3,335,912 

2,153,278 

38,985 


68,675,406 
208,522,515 
154,88S,213 
138,398,304 

75,716,681 
139,210,917 
188,216,389 
202,898,973 



1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 



39,640 

248,209 

1,121,356 

4,802,818 

6,950,376 

3,524,100 

85,819 

419 



5,093,698 
310,597 
12,305,286 
15,941,498 
12,506,520 
18,770,973 
26,641,915 
7, 881, 700 
317,847 



1,095, 
176, 
7,930, 
4,727, 
8,169, 
8,586, 
7,649, 
126, 



14,680,377 
70,072 
37,269,151 
23,681,080 
23, 175, .839 
10,408,381 
6, 120, 895 
1,884,718 
145, 143 



8,394 


118 


29,868 


189 


46,209,615 i 


33,903 


12V 


14,411 


050 


1,367 


863 


89,835 





497,148 



2,462,296 
441,405 

3,450,401 
17,452,662 

6,891,101 
907,068 
543,988 





13,912 
62,403 
940, 431 



56, ISO 
1,500 
25,920 



1913.. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 
1917.. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920.. 
1921.. 



144,987 
125,647 
468,326 
137, 255 
484,928 
260,267 
911,480 
333,759 
347,128 



678,992 
335, 977 
2,454,078 
1,136,474 
1,104,104 
4,380,387 
12,435,503 
23,488,700 
6,007,807 



62,216 

180,208 

405,803 

1,347,021 

396, 213 

377,405 

7,695,885 

2,280,992 

1,135,125 



442,732 
272, 847 
136, 798 
275,321 
083,764 
952, 782 
493,883 
679,665 
604,219 



1,304,720 
311,487 



28 

5 

60,000 

261,879 

300 

177, 857 

1,166,361 



230,246 

'496,'7i3' 
1,098,501 



1913... 




1914 




1915... • 


684,344 


1916... 


705,587 


1917. . . 


10,248 


1918... 


414,523 


1919... 


2,517,290 


1920... 


45,112 



4,264,817 

644,931 

3,249,736 

7,248,995 



8,334,279 
4,947,659 
4,400,565 



215,365 
497, 229 

1,254,708 
220,174 
571,180 

2,303,565 
232,538 
22,303 



179,; 



2,224.264 
7,371,371 
2,186,771 

184,043 
4,062,624 

735, 758 
1,433,517 



5,560,639 



4,628,757 
150,414 



153,447 
1,978,583 
7,716,366 
6,926,738 
5,949,073 
1,064,315 



2,126 

51,784 

2,427,488 

1,562,420 

625,055 

20,933 



1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 



4,170,512 

162,534 

602,960 

319,942 

3,209,528 

327,304 

1,761 

58,854 

1,395,358 



5,900,541 
877,116 

12,093,100 
3,133,326 

12,857,505 
6,842,662 
1,196,374 
1,653,372 

12,429,805 



1,639, 

261, 

1,943, 

1,391, 

3,320, 

1,239, 

483, 

700, 

9,796, 



19,843,113 
581,595 
18,329,615 
14,945,252 
19,122,558 
1,414,328 
810,699 
1,623,402 
19,989,922 



2,580,287 
112,292 

3,133,552 
411,044 
292,517 
33,414 



4,152,979 


1,717,652 


2,512,294 


6,127,592 


4,943,376 


9,415,384 


1,233,081 


1,142,998 


13,883,026 



17,786 

1,859,753 

258,499 

3,797,264 

3,306 




EXPLANATION 
ExponEmno. Th. loii „ 



BOARD OF ENGINEERS 
FOR Rive:RS AND HARBORS 
TERRITORY SERVED 

j^.^,„;^pz^?c:z^r^l: PORT OF phIladelphia.pa. 

•j^im Ttniioty which o 






DRAWN BY - Of 



TERRITORY TRIBUTARY TO PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The area tributary to Philadelphia for both local and through 
trade is shown on the accompanying map. It is impossible to fix 
definitely the limits of either the local or through territory for the 
reason that the limits differ with the commodity and with the origin 
and destination of the traffic. 

LOCAL TERRITORY SERVED. 

The area on the map indicated as local territory is based principally 
upon existing rates to Philadelphia and the competing ports of New 
York and Baltimore. These rates may be regarded as controlling 
largely the movement of low-grade products, but the movement of high- 
class goods from local as well as more distant points is governed more 
particularly by service which includes many requisites of trade and 
transportation varying in natm-e with the commodities. Rate in- 
formation presented in this volume shows that Philadelphia is in a 
favorable position for serving the anthracite coal region and some 
of the important iron and steel manufacturing centers. Philadelphia 
is the center of important petroleum and sugar refineries, the finished 
products of which are distributed throughout the entire United 
States. The raw products of these industries are received in large 
part by water from foreign as well as domestic sources, but the finished 
products are distributed principally by rail, and their movements 
are not indicated in the data given in this report, which is limited 
to tracing, in so far as is practicable, the movement of imports and 
exports. The local and domestic commerce of the port of Philadel- 
phia, including the industries which are dependent in some measure 
upon water transportation facilities, is enormous. The statistics of 
commerce accompanying this report show domestic water-borne 
traffic including local business amounting to more than 15,000,000 
tons annually. 

INTERIOR TERRITORY SERVED. 

A large portion of import and export business of the port of Phila- 
delphia is to and from points in Central Freight Association territory, 
although practically every state in the Union ships some commodities 
through tliis port. 

The board has been unable to include in this report tables and maps 
such as it has prepared for a number of important ports showing the 
origin of exports and the destination of imports by States. Through 

343 



344 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

the courtesy of the railroads, the board has been able to compile this 
matter for many of our ports but was unable to secure the re- 
quired statistics from all carriers serving the port of Philadelphia. 
The following statement furnished by the Trunk Line Association of 
New York shows the destination of imports tlirough Pliiladelphia in 
1913 as reported by that association. The figures cover points west 
of Erie, Pittsbm-gh, and Wheeling, and represent only part of the 
traffic of the port. They are sufficient to show, however, that imports 
through this port are forwarded to every section of the United States. 

Through the cooperation of the statistical department of the 
United States Sliipping Board there have been prepared for publica- 
tion in this report tables showing the origin of imports and destina- 
tion of exports through the port of Philadelphia during the calendar 
year 1921. 

The table of imports shows the origin by coimtries of 2,402,736 
long tons received at this port during that year. The imports from 
Mexico amounted to 1,010,214 tons or 42 per cent of the total. All 
of this was crude petroleum except 110 tons of logs and lumber. The 
imports from Cuba took second rank in volume, amounting to a total 
of 706,674 tons or 29 per cent of the total. Raw sugar alone amounted 
to 601,594 tons, while molasses received from Cuba amounted to 
61,198 tons. Imports from the United Kingdom were tliird in volume, 
amounting to 134,936 tons, of which the most important commodity 
was china clay amounting to 77,617 tons. The balance was chiefly 
general cargo. Articles of outstanding importance in the import 
trade of Philadelphia, additional to those already mentioned, were 
iron ore and manganese, amounting to 168,063 tons, received chiefly 
from British India, Brazil, Cuba, Spain, and Norway; bananas, 
amounting to 69,045 tons, wliich came chiefly from Jamaica, Cuba, 
Colombia, Honduras, and Guatemala; wood pulp, amounting to 
39,963 tons, from countries of northern Europe; and chemicals, 
amounting to 51,993 tons, including potash, nitrates, and other 
fertilizers, from many sources. 

The figures of the Shipping Board show a total of 2,549,350 long 
tons of exports through the port of Philadelphia during the calendar 
year 1921. Exports to Italy amounted to 586,033 tons, surpassing 
in volrnne those to any other country. The United Kingdom was 
second with 474,447 tons, Holland third with 238,107 tons, and 
Germany fourth with 170,786 tons. Exports of coal and coke 
exceeded in volume all other commodities and amounted to 634,240 
tons. Of this total, 192,415 tons went to Italy, 109,908 tons to 
Cuba, and 128,500 tons to Brazil. Wheat ranked second with a 
total of 616,008 long tons, of wliich 210,227 went to Italy, 76,779 
tons to the United Kingdom, and 54,723 tons to Greece. The total 



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WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS.US ARMY. 




THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 345 

of all grains exported amounted to 935,208 tons. Other items of 
importance exported through the port of Philadelphia in 1921 
included petroleum and products amounting to 467,043 tons, refined 
sugar and manufactm-es amounting to 55,704 tons, and wheat flour 
amounting to 43,223 tons. All of these commodities had a wide 
distribution. Under the heading ''Not elsewhere specified" are 
included miscellaneous small lots amounting to 308, Oil tons. Further 
details respecting the origin of imports and destination of exports 
through the port of Philadelphia are shown on the accompanying 
map and tables. 

2497°— 23 23 



346 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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THE PORT OF PHHADELPHIA, PA. 



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THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 






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THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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Total 



350 



THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



The geographical position of Philadelphia with reference to impor- 
tant industrial centers and points of accumulation will be apparent 
from the following table: 



Rail distances from important interior shipping centers, in statute miles. 





Port- 
land. 


Bos- 
ton. 


New 
York. 


PWla- 
del- 
phia. 


Balti- 
more. 


Nor- 
folk. 


Charles- 
ton. 


Sar 
van- 
nah. 


Mo- 
bUe. 


New 
Or- 
leans. 


Gal- 
ves- 
ton. 


Montreal 


297 

607 

782 

790 

1,052 

1,U2 

1,166 

1^593 
537 
475 


330 

498 

673 

681 

943 

1,033 

1,057 

1,217 

1,484 

428 

366 


386 

441 
579 
751 
909 
865 
1,053 
1,331 
196 
134 


477 
416 
349 
487 
660 
817 
774 
961 
1,239 
104 
164 


574 
396 
314 
446 
593 
797 
702 
932 
1,210 
84 
219 


733 
580 
503 
638 
667 
952 
731 
1,005 
1,283 
268 
403 


1,125 
945 
811 
992 
730 

1,015 
707 
920 

1,198 
633 
768 


1,231 

1,054 
920 

1,005 
743 

1,027 
719 
905 

1,1.83 
742 
877 


1,617 

1,229 

1,095 

1,046 

784 

929 

670 

657 

1,127 
1,262 


1,663 

1,281 

1,147 

1,098 

836 

930 

787 

718 

868 

1,204 

1,377 


1 911 




1^583 






Cleveland 


1 400 




1 157 




1^148 


Louisville 


1 043 


St Louis 


864 




806 


Harrisburg 


1,661 
1 796 









Distances to important foreign ports by water from Philadelphia 
and competing ports are as follows: 

Water distances to important foreign ports, in nautical miles. ^ 





Mont- 
real. 


Port- 
land. 


Bos- 
ton. 


New 
York. 


Phila- 
del- 
phia. 


Balti- 
more. 


Nor- 
folk. 


Charles- 
ton. 


Sa- 
van- 
nah. 


Mo- 
bUe. 


New 
Or- 
leans. 


Gal- 
ves- 
ton, 


Liverpool 


2,785 


2,885 


2,928 
2,857 
3,469 
3,749 
3,028 
1,415 
2,157 
3,669 
5,842 


3,107 
3,036 
3,648 
3,928 
3,207 
1,186 
1,974 

5^871 


3,250 
3,179 
3,791 
4,071 
3,350 
1,156 
1,946 
3,745 
5,918 


3,. 393 
3,322 
3,934 
4,214 
3,490 
1,107 
1,901 
3,772 
5,945 


3,272 


3,540 


3,613 


4,544 


4,613 
4,510 
6,154 

5,434 

'603 
1,390 
4,108 
6,281 


4,773 
4,670 








3,813 
4,093 
3,369 
985 
1,779 
3,651 
5,824 


4,081 

■■3,'6i9' 

646 

1,564 

3,649 

5,822 


4,154 
4,434 
3,689 
606 
1,563 
3,681 
5,854 


■4,"524' 
653 
1,371 
4,061 
6,625 


5,314 








5 571 


Gibraltar 

Habana 

Colon, C. Z 

Pernambuco... 
Buenos Aires... 


3,188 
2,472 
3,160 
4,284 
6,457 


2,985 
1,456 
2,198 
3,700 
5,873 


4,753 
769 
1,493 
4,331 
6,504 



1 Shortest usual route as shown in table of distances between ports, issued by the Hydrographic Office, 
U.S. Navy. Nautical miles may be converted to statute miles approximately by multiplying by 1 .15. 



SUBPORTS. 

The facilities available at the several cities and industrial centers 
along the Delaware River are closely related to the shipping activi- 
ties of the port of Philadelphia. Mention of them is necessary to a 
complete presentation of useful data relative to this port. Detailed 
information regarding piers, wharves, docks, dry docks, ship-repair 
plants, fuel oil, and certain other facilities is contained in the report 
on Philadelphia. The information given in the following pages has 
therefore been limited to matters not covered hereinbefore. 

CAMDEN, N. J. 

Camden, N. J., is located on the east bank of the Delaware River, 
directly opposite the city of Philadelphia. The business interests are 
mainly identical with those of Philadelphia and both cities are in the 
same customs district. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE UNITED STATES. 

Previous 'projects. — The project adopted June 25, 1910, for a 35-foot 
channel between Philadelphia and the sea provided for improvement 
along the Camden water front to the extent of dredging to a depth of 
15 feet where such depth does not already exist, with a uniform slope 
to the eastern edge of the 35-foot channel. 

Existing project. — This provides for dredging in front of Camden to 
a depth of 18 feet at mean low water from a point north of Cooper 
Point to Kaighn Point Ferry, and 30 feet from the latter point to 
Newton Creek, these depths to extend from the projected 35-foot 
channel in the Delaware River to a line parallel with and 50 feet 
distant from the established pierhead line. The distance from Cooper 
Point to Kaighn Point Ferry is about 2.4 miles, and from Kaighn 
Point Ferry to Newton Creek is about 1.67 miles. The act of March 
2, 1919, which adopted the existing project, requires local interests to 
contribute $15,000 toward the improvement, and this amount has 
been received from the city. No work has been done on the project. 

OWNERSHIP OF WATER FRONT. 

The city of Camden owns nine sites for water terminals, five of 

which are leased to industrial concerns, the others being occupied by 

city piers or unused. 

351 



352 THE POET OF PHILADBLPHIA, PA. 

TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The piers, docks, and wharves are mostly owned and used by- 
concerns which are industrial rather than commercial in character. 
Some of these terminals can accommodate vessels up to 30 feet draft, 
though the average depth at piers does not exceed 10 feet. 

The city of Camden has developed plans for a terminal, including 
wharves, warehouses, rail and highway connections on water-front 
property owned by the city, and reconstruction of one of the city 
piers in accordance with these plans has been completed. 

This pier was designed with a view to providing a facility suitable 
for general cargo purposes. It is 102 feet wide, and has a berthing 
capacity of 474 feet on the upper side and 700 feet on the lower side, 
with depths of 26 to 30 feet. The transit shed on the pier is 72 
feet 10 inches by 460 feet and has a total floor area of 33,500 square 
feet. The apron is 23.7 feet wide and is designed to accommodate a 
3-ton semiportal crane. 

At the time of our inspection of the pier the Lake Falama had just 
unloaded a cargo of raw sugar. This vessel is of the small lake type, 
251 feet long, with a dead-weight tonnage of 4,155, draft of 24 feet 
4^ inches, total bale capacity 166,086 cubic feet or grain capacity of 
180,033 cubic feet. The transit shed was empty when this cargo was 
unloaded, but the sugar practically absorbed its entire storage 
capacity. 

If this pier is to be used regularly for ocean traffic additional covr 
ered storage wiU be needed, which can apparently be provided 
adjacent to the shore end of the pier. 

PORT ADMINISTRATION. 

The water front is under the supervision of a board of harbor 
commissioners, appointed by the mayor. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

The water front is protected by the city fire department. The 
city of Camden does not own any fire boats but in case of fire along 
the water front it has been customary for the fire boats at the city of 
Philadelphia to lend their assistance. Many piers have fire ex- 
tinguishers and some have their own fire protection in addition to that 
furnished by the city. Detailed information is given in the tables on 
piers, wharves, and docks. 

ELECTRIC CURRENT. 

Electric ciUTent for power and light is supplied by the Public 
Service Electric Co. There is sufficient current to meet all demands 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 353 

for power and lighting. Alternating current of 220 volts, S-phase, 60- 
cjcle, is supplied. Information regarding electric current at the 
various piers and wharves is given in the table showing the data 
relative to piers, wharves, and docks. 

RAILROADS. 

Camden is served by two railroads, the Pennsylvania and the 
Philadelphia & Reading. The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. owns 
tracks running along Delaware Avenue from Arch Street to State 
Street, a distance of approximately 1 mile. The Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Co. is permitted to run its own cars over this line 
by agreement between the two roads. 

GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

Gloucester, N. J., is located on the east bank of the Delaware 
River, directly opposite the city of Philadelphia and just below Cam- 
den, N. J. The water front is mostly owned and used by private 
industrial concerns. The city owns two pieces of water-front prop- 
erty. On one there is a city wharf, at which a flat wharfage rate of $1 
per day or fraction thereof is charged, with lesser rates for an ex- 
tended stay. 

The water front at Gloucester is under the control of the street 
committee of the city council. 

EDDYSTONE, PA. 

Eddystone, Pa., is about 12 miles below Philadelphia on the 
Delaware River. Here the Baldwin Locomotive Works operates a 
large plant where locomotives are built and shipped from its pier 
direct to foreign countries. 

CHESTER, PA. 

Chester, Pa., is located on the Delaware River 14| miles below 
Philadelphia. 

TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The terminal improvements consist of some 36 piers and wharves, 
all of which are owned by private interests, with the exception of 
three, which are owned by the city and are open to the public. 

PORT ADMINISTRATION. 

General control is exercised by the board of commissioners of 
navigation for the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries. A 
port warden, appointed by the municipality, has charge of the city 
piers. 



354 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

The river front is protected by the city fire department. Some 
of the wharves and piers have their own fire protection in addition to 
that furnished by the city. 

ELECTRIC CURRENT. 

Electric current for power and lighting is furnished by the Delaware 
County Electric Co. Alternating current of 110 to 220 volts, 3-phase, 
60-cycle, is supplied. 

Information with regard to the electric current at the various piers 
and wharves is given in the table showing the data relative to piers, 
wharves, and docks. 

RAILROADS. 

Chester is served by the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia & Reading, 
and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroads. 

MARCUS HOOK, PA. 

Marcus Hook, Pa., is 16 J miles below Philadelphia. A great many 
vessels take on bunker oil at this place. 

The terminal facilities consist of six piers of open-pile or timber-crib 
construction. Three of the piers are owned by oil refineries, one is 
used by a river transportation line, and two are owned by the United 
States. The latter are open to public use free of charge. The com- 
merce consists principally of oil and coal. Vessels up to 12,000 tons 
capacity use the terminals. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad and the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway have direct physical connections with the three oil piers. 
All piers have good roadway connections. 

The State quarantine station is located here and both national and 
State quarantine officers board vessels for inspection. 

WILMINGTON, DEL. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

Wilmington is situated on the Christiana River at its junction with 
the Delaware River. The Christiana River is a tidal stream which rises 
in New Castle County, Del., and flows northeasterly 16 miles, empty- 
ing into the Delaware River, about 29 miles below Philadelphia, Pa. 
Its width varies from 750 feet at the mouth to 50 feet at Christiana 
village, the head of navigation. At a point about 1^ miles above the 
mouth the Christiana River is joined by the Brandywine River, 
which is navigable for about 1 mile. The mean range of tide at 
Wilmington is 5.8 feet. 



^^^I^K^..^: 



APRIL 1923 













•^\ 

















COMPOSED 
AER AL PHOTOf ^'i 

WILMINGTON DEL 



L-E b A R oERV ( 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



355 



BRIDGES. 

Nine drawbridges cross the Christiana River, as follows; 



Bridge. 



Nautical 
miles 

above the 
outer 
ends of 

the jetties 
at the 

entrance. 



Least width 

of two draw 

openings (feet) 



Clear 
height 
above 
high 
water 
(feet). 



Pennsj'lvania R. R. (lower) . . 

Third Street (highway) 

Market Street (highway) 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R 

Pennsylvania R. R. (middle). 

Philadelphia & Reading R. R 
Pennsylvania R. R. (upper).. 

Newport (highway) 

Churchmans (highway) 



North, 99 

South, 95 

97 

70 

East, 70 

West, 62 

East, 66. 5 

West, 57. 3 

40 

South, 32. 5 

27 



Four bridges cross Brandywine Creek between the mouth and the 
head of navigation. All have draw openings. 

Bridge regulations prescribed for the highway bridges crossing 
Christiana River and Brandywine Creek require that the draws shall 
be opened immediately at all times of the day or night upon a signal 
of three blasts of a whistle or horn, if no person or vehicle passing over 
the bridge is then in the way. The answer from the bridge is three 
blasts of a whistle or horn if the bridge can be opened immediately, 
and two blasts if the bridge can not be opened immediately. 

Regulations prescribed for the railroad bridges crossing Christiana 
River and Brandywine Creek require that the draws shall be opened 
immediately at all times of the day or night upon a signal of three 
blasts of a horn or whistle, unless a train is due to arrive within 5 
minutes of the time of giving the signal. But in no case shall there 
be a delay of more than 10 minutes in opening the draws. The 
signal shall be answered from the bridge by three blasts of a whistle 
or horn if the bridge can be opened immediately, and two blasts if the 
bridge can not be opened immediately. 

HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE UNITED STATES. 

Original condition. — Prior to improvement the channel of Christiana 
River was narrow and irregular, obstructed by a bar at the mouth and 
by numerous shoals within the river. The available low-water depth 
was not sufficient for large commercial boats, which made it necessary 
to await high tide. The channel depth at the mouth was 8^ feet at 
mean low water; at the pulp works, about 4 miles above the mouth, 
7i feet; at Newport, about 9 miles above the mouth, 5| feet; and at 
Christiana village, the head of navigation, 15 miles above the mouth, 
about 2 feet. 



356 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Previous project. — Work was done on the Christiana River from 
1836 to 1838. The original project was adopted by act of July 11, 
1870, and modified by acts of March 3, 1881, and July 5, 1884. 

Existing project. — This provides for the formation, by dredging and 
rock removal, of a channel 21 feet deep at mean low water from the 
Delaware Eiver to the pulp works, a distance of 4 miles; thence 
diminishing to a depth of 10 feet at the Philadelphia, Baltimore & 
Washington Railroad bridge No. 4; and thence 7 feet deep to New- 
port, a total distance of 8f miles; 250 feet wide from the Delaware 
River to the mouth of the Brandywine, a distance of 1.6 miles; 200 
feet wide thence to bridge No. 4, a farther distance of 2.4 miles; and 
thence 100 feet to Newport; also the construction of a jetty at the 
mouth of the Brandywine, one on the south side of the mouth of the 
Christiana, and the extension of the north jetty at the mouth of the 
Christiana about 300 feet. The length of tlie section included in the 
project is about 9 miles and its lower end is about 1,800 feet outside 
the mouth of the river. 

Cooperation.— By an act of the Delaware State Legislature passed 
March 9, 1901, the city of Wilmington was authorized to contribute 
toward the improvement of Wilmington Harbor to the amount of 10 
per cent of the United States Government appropriation to an aggre- 
gate not exceeding $60,000. The city of Wilmington has contributed 
$54,117.70, including interest on the contribution. 

OWNERSHIP OF WATER FRONT. 

The percentage of water-front property owned by the city of 
Wilmington on each of the three rivers is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Delaware River 5. 3 

Christiana River 16. 5 

Brandywine River navigable 9. 2 

Brandywine River not navigable 69. 

TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

There is a continuous series of piers and wharves on both sides of 
the Christiana River for a distance of about 2 miles, or from the 
American Car & Foundry Co. to the Jessup & Moore Paper Co. 
These terminals serve the needs of the industrial plants located along 
the river, but are not suitable or available for public transportation 
uses. The city has recently constructed a municipal produce wharf, 
which is in use at the present time. 

Improvements under construction. — The Board of Harbor Commis- 
sioners has prepared a plan for the construction of port terminals 
designed to meet all probable requirements of present and prospective 
traffic. This plan contemplates the development of a combined rail- 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 357 

way and steamship terminal at the mouth of Christiana River, with 
the possible later extension of the terminal along the west bank of 
the Delaware River, just below the mouth of the Christiana River. 
The initial unit will be marginal. A contract has been let for the con- 
struction of 1,210 feet of berthing bulldiead or quay wall of reinforced 
concrete construction above mean tide; a pile and timber retaining 
bulkhead 850 feet in length; a steel and brick cargo transit shed 120 
feet wide by 400 feet long parallel to the quay and 25 feet from its 
face; two steel and brick cargo storage sheds each 120 feet wide by 
500 feet long, perpendicular to and abutting the transit shed ; an open 
storage area of about 7 acres having a frontage on the bulkhead of 480 
feet and served by five pairs of railroad tracks; a coastwise cargo 
shed, of steel and brick construction, 30 feet wide by 200 feet long; a 
barracks and cafeteria; yardmaster's office; booster pump house; 
pump and transformer house; car storage yard, capacity 70 cars; 
fire and domestic water supply lines; 75,000-gaUon water tower; 
sewers and drains; highway coimections and electrical installation 
throughout. 

It is planned to equip the new terminal with tractors, trailers, 
industrial trucks, a mechanical ramp for side-port loading, a locomo- 
tive crane, and a full portal gantry crane. 

Connections are already available directly to the Pennsylvania 
Railroad and the Philadelpliia & Reading Railway; the Baltimore & 
Ohio is at present connected through the Reading. A certificate of 
public convenience and necessity has been issued by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission authorizing the Board of Harbor Commis- 
sioners to build and operate a terminal railroad in the city of Wil- 
mington, consisting of about 10 miles of main track, with spurs and 
sidings, extending from connections at or near the eastern end of 
Terminal ThorougMare with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and the Philadelpliia & Reading Railway, 
to the water front between Pigeon Point Pier and Third Street Bridge 
and to various industries to be located in that vicinity. 

This line and facilities will constitute the necessary connecting 
link between the rail and water transportation, so that traffic moving 
through the port may be handled with the greatest possible dispatch. 

LOCAL REGULATIONS, CHRISTIANA RIVER. 

Channel regnlations. — Vessels over 20 tons propelled by machinery 
shall not proceed at any time within the limits of these waters at a 
greater speed than 8 statute miles per hour. 

Vessels over 15 tons, propelled by machinery, passing any plant 
employed in the improvement of said waters, shall not proceed at a 
speed greater than 4 statute miles per hour, and the propelling ma- 
chinery of vessels passing any such plant shall be stopped at a distance 



358 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

of 300 feet from said plant and not started in motion until said 
vessel shall have passed abreast of such plant, except where it may 
become necessary to avoid an accident, or in the case of a vessel 
with heavy tow. When it becomes necessary for a vessel to pass 
between any such plant and any buoys indicating the position of the 
mooring anchors of such plant, such vessel shall give the following 
warning signal to said plant to lower the mooring lines : Four short 
blasts of a whistle or horn in quick succession, said warning signal 
to be given when said vessel is about one-half mile away from the 
plant. 

Paragraphs 3 to 9 of the regulations for Delaware Eiver apply 
to Christiana River. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING USE, OPERATION, AND THE 
ASSESSMENT OF CHARGES AT MUNICIPAL DOCKS AND WHARVES 
UNDER JURISDICTION OF THE BOARD OF HARBOR COMMISSIONERS, 
WILMINGTON, DEL. 

Utilization. — No dock, wharf, bulldiead, or other harbor structure 
shall be taken for use unless written application for such use is made 
to the board of harbor commissioners and approved by them. In 
case of ordinary berthing and incidental discharging or loading of 
vessels, application should be made to the dock master in charge. 

Duties of dock master. — The dock master shall regulate the move- 
ment and berthing of vessels; collect berthing charges, wharfage, 
storage, and other charges; have power at any time to order the 
removal from berth of any vessel or vessels not actually engaged in 
the receiving or discharging of cargo or otherwise employed. 

Liability of master of vessel. — In case of the refusal or neglect of 
any master or other person in charge of a vessel or vessels to comply 
with the orders of the dock master, such master shall be liable not 
only for the cost of the moving, necessary but also to prosecution 
to full extent of the law governing same. 

Storage of goods. — No goods shall be stored on or in any dock, 
wharf, bulkhead, or other structure to such a height that the load 
on same shall exceed the limit of safety. 

No goods shall be piled or tiered within 5 feet of the string piece 
of any dock, wharf, bulkhead, or other structure unless otherwise 
authorized by the board of harbor commissioners. 

Explosives and extra hazardous cargo. — No vessel laden with ex- 
plosives or other extra hazardous or inflammable cargo will be al- 
lowed within the berthing limits of any pier, dock, wharf, bulkhead, 
or other harbor structure except upon receipt of a special written 
permit from the board of harbor commissioners. The storage, 
loading, or discharging of said explosives or other extra hazardous 
or inflammable material upon or over any pier, dock, wharf, bulk- 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 359 

head, or other harbor structure is prohibited except upon receipt 
of a special written permit from the board of harbor commissioners. 

If a special wi'itten permit for the storage of such explosives or 
extra hazardous or inflammable goods, including cotton, naval 
stores, hay, straw, excelsior, vegetable fibers, etc., is issued, then 
said material shall be covered or protected by tarpaulins or other- 
wise to the satisfaction of the dock master at the expense of the 
owner or agent. 

Harbor 'pollution. — It shall not be lawful to throw, discharge, or 
deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure to be thrown, discharged, or de- 
posited, either from or out of any ship, barge, or other floating 
craft of any kind, or from the shore, wharf, manufacturing estab- 
lishment, or mill of any kind, any oil, fuel oil, oil sludge, material 
containing oil, or any other oil refuse, or refuse matter of any kind 
or description whatever into the waters forming the harbor of 
Wilmington, or into any other streams or waters within the corpo- 
rate limits of the city of Wilmington, but this shall not be construed 
to prohibit the discharge or deposit of refuse matter into sewers and 
passing therefrom in a liquid state into such waters. 

Penalty. — Every person, firm, association, or corporation violating 
the foregoing provision shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceed- 
ing $500, or by imprisonment not exceeding 30 days, in the discre- 
tion of the court. 

Savalls and penalty for nonuse. — In the discharging or loading of 
vessels with sand, gravel, oyster shells, broken stone or similar ma- 
terial, such vessels shall provide "savalls" made of canvas or other 
material to prevent such sand, gravel, etc., from falling into the 
water. Any infringement of this rule shaU be punishable by a fine 
not exceeding $50, or imprisonment not exceeding three months, or 
either or both at the discretion of the court. 

BERTHING AND WHARFAGE RATES. 

Berthing. — Vessels from — 

^ Per day. 

to 50 feet in length (minimum charge) $1. 00 

50 to 75 feet in length (minimum charge) 2. 00 

75 to 100 feet in length (minimum charge) 3. 00 

100 to 150 feet in length (minimum charge) 5. 00 

150 to 200 feet in length (minimum charge) 10. 00 

200 to 250 feet in length (minimum charge) 15. 00 

250 feet Special rates on application. 

A day shall be considered as 24 hours or any part thereof. 

Berthing charges are payable daily unless special arrangements 
are authorized. Berthing charges remaining unpaid after a vessel 
has left its berth will become a lien against said vessel and will be 



360 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

collected by due process of law. Berthing rates apply to vessels 
without cargo; or vessels loading and/or discharging cargo to a 
maximum of 20,000 pounds. Vessels occupying berth and loading 
and/or discharging cargo overside, to or from another vessel, will 
pay the scheduled berthing rate. Vessels receiving cargo, or deliver- 
ing cargo to, alongside a vessel in berth will pay one-half of the 
scheduled berthing rate. 

Toy wharfage. — Top wharfage will be assessed against vessels dis- 
charging to, or loading from, the wharf cargo in excess of 20,000 
pounds at the rate of 1 cent per 100 pounds or fraction thereof. 

Storage rates, open storage. — One-half cent per square foot of area 
for each period of five days or under. 

Covered storage. — One cent per square foot of area for each period 
of five days or under. 

Use of meclianical equipment, locomotive crane. — Five dollars per 
hour. 

The storage time begins with the placing of any portion of the 
goods to be stored and charges will be levied on the basis of the full 
quantity up to the time removal has been completed. 

These rates and schedules are subject to change wnthout notice. 
Special rates and schedules may be applied in special cases as and 
when deemed advisable by the board of harbor commissioners. 

No goods in storage shall be removed until full payment for such 
storage has been made unless special arrangements are made and 
authorized by the board of harbor commissioners. 

Responsibility. — The board of harbor commissioners under no con- 
dition will be responsible for the safety or condition of any vessel 
berthed at any dock, wharf, bulkhead, or other harbor structure or 
for any cargoes stored thereon. No receipts for any goods will be 
issued. 

PORT ADMINISTRATION. 

The administration of the port of Wilmington is intrusted to the 
board of harbor commissioners for the city of Wilmington, created 
by act of the State legislature approved April 12, 1917. This board 
has power, subject to the approval of the council of the city of Wil- 
mington, to adopt a plan for the comprehensive enlargement of the 
terminal and transfer facilities of the port and to proceed with such 
enlargement at municipal expense. In addition the board of harbor 
commissioners has the following powers: 

To make, adopt, and enforce by-laws, rules, and regulations re- 
garding the use and management of all municipal wharves, piers, and 
docks, or other municipal water-front property, including structures 
and appliances, and to collect and receive the income therefrom. 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 361 

To fix, regulate, and collect rates or charges for wharfage, tonnage, 
and other services rendered in the loading and unloading of vessels 
or other carriers, and also such warehouse and storage charges as it 
may determine. 

To enter into joint arrangements with steamship lines, railroads, 
railways of any other transportation line, or any common carriers, 
if said board shall deem it to the advantage of the city so to do. 

To construct all or any part of the work contemplated in said plan 
by contract or otherwise as it may determine. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

The water front is protected by the city fire department. Many 
of the piers have chemical fire extinguishers, and a nimiber have their 
own fire protection in addition to that furnished by the city. Full 
information regarding the fire protection at each pier will be found 
in that part of the main report dealing with piers, wharves, and docks. 

ELECTRIC CURRENT. 

Electric current for power and lighting is supplied by the Wil- 
mington Electric Co. Alternating current of 110-220 volts, 3 phase, 
60 cycle is furnished. Information regarding electric current at the 
various wharves and piers is given in the table showing the data 
relative to piers, wharves, and docks, etc. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

There is an unlimited supply of pure water. Vessels fill their 
boilers from the river anywhere in the harbor. Drinking water is 
supplied to vessels in stream, or at piers that have no water connec- 
tion, by water boats at $1.25 per ton. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The information presented in this report affords abundant evidence 
of the importance of the port of Philadelphia in connection with the 
exportation of coal and grain, and the receipt of raw material and 
shipment of finished products of the sugar, petroleum, and metal 
industries. It is likewise an important center of activity for many 
other lines of industry requiring water transportation for the receipt 
of crude materials, and the distribution of manufactured goods. 
Both the United States and local municipal authorities have expended 
large sums in the development of channel facilities which have been 
instrumental in placing this port in a position to attract the larger 
types of cargo vessels. The area available for expansion at this port 
2497°— 23 24 



362 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

is practically unlimited. Much of the entire shore of the Delaware 
River from Philadelphia to the sea may be regarded as available for 
the extension of commercial and industrial activities, conveniently 
accessible to deep water. 

With the exception of its inability at certain times to handle grain 
shipments promptly, the port of Philadelphia is rarely troubled with 
congestion. Congestion of grain movements at this port is due largely 
to insufficient elevator capacity rather than to inability to handle 
cars promptly. As already pointed out, the port of Philadelphia 
should take steps to provide an additional elevator and this preferably 
should be under the control of the department of wharves and docks 
or some other agency representing the people and which may be 
depended upon to serve the public faithfully and impartially. It is 
believed that this elevator should be placed where it may serve 
several of the modern piers now being constructed or proposed by 
the port. Its value to the public will in consideraole measure be 
dependent upon the establishment of arrangements with the rail 
carriers for delivery of cars to the elevator without any increase of 
cost over such delivery to the rail owned or controlled elevators. 

The port is well supplied with warehouses suitable for general 
cargo. Only a few of these warehouses are directly on the water 
front but a number are located along Delaware Avenue within short 
haul from the terminals. Delaware Avenue provides a marginal way 
of ample width and performs an important service in avoiding traffic 
congestion in the terminal district. At this port as well as many 
other Atlantic ports, the private warehouses best adapted for general 
storage purposes are handicapped by the competition of railroad 
terminals which absorb in the line haul rate terminal expenses which 
private warehouses must meet from the revenue of the warehouse 
itself, and which must consequently be charged against the shipper. 
The advantages afforded by the private warehouses and their superior 
protection of goods, however, justifies the shipper in using them 
in nearly all cases where high class goods can not be moved out 
promptly. 

The city of Philadelphia has taken a leading position among the 
important Atlantic ports in providing piers of modern construction, 
suitable in all important respects to the requirements of shipping. 
The units are being increased in keeping with the demands of com- 
merce. In addition to the piers provided by the municipality the 
railroads and private interests have built terminals equipped to 
handle the various commodities which customarily pass through the 
port. There are modern terminals for handling coal, ore, oil, grain, 
and sugar, each with its special facilities for economical handling. 

Philadelphia like New York has the advantage of a free lighterage 
system which makes it possible to deliver freight to terminals which 



THE PORT OF PHII^yDELPHIA, PA. 363 

can not be reached conveniently by rail. There is very little of such 
business at this port, however, owing to the complete railroad con- 
nections with all important terminals. 

During normal times there is a shortage of dry dock facilities at the 
port. With the exception of those at the navy yard there is only one 
graving dock at Philadelphia and neighboring localities of sufficient, 
capacity for docking a ship 350 feet long. This is Dry Dock No. 1, of 
the Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Co. Of the five 
floating dry docks available only one is capable of accommodating a 
ship 300 feet long. This is Dry Dock No. 1 of the Sun Shipbuilding 
Co. at Chester. There are numerous marine railways suitable for 
hauling out the smaller types of vessels, but these do not meet the 
needs of the ships engaged in overseas trade. The importance of the 
shipping of the port of Philadelphia renders it highly desirable that 
additional dry docks be provided. 

Communication with the various piers of the port is effected 
through the Belt Line in conjunction with the tracks of the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway, the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. There is no through belt line system 
operating under one control. The present system is disadvantageous 
to the best interests of the port and early steps should be taken to 
complete the belt line and to place its operation under the control of 
one agency acting in behalf of the public. Under existing arrange- 
ments in which the railroad lines themselves operate over the Belt 
system, equal service to all can not be expected. 

Philadelphia enjoys favorable freight rates to and from Central 
Freight Association territory and beyond, as well as to a large and 
important industrial section east of Pittsburgh. Having in mind the 
fact that ocean rates from this port are no higher than those from 
northern ports, Philadelphia offers economies sufficient to attract a 
large and increasing traffic. These economies, however, can be 
availed of by the shipper only if adequate vessel service is maintained. 
The maintenance of such vessel service depends in a large measure 
upon a regular flow of cargo of suitable kind to the foreign destinations 
which this port is best situated to serve. In the recent formation of 
an ocean traffic bureau to develop business along practical lines, the 
port has taken a much needed step which is bound to be reflected in 
increased business and more stable shipping conditions. 



364 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

lAst of piers and wharves, port of Philadelphia. 

DELAWARE RIVER, PETTY ISLAND. 
Refer- For 

ence description 

No. on seepage 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

1. Lower bulkhead, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 66 

2. Philadelphia Electric Co. Pier 66 

3. Philadelphia Electric Co. Pier 67 

4. Crew Levick Co. Pier 67 

DELAWARE RIVER, PHILADELPHIA, NORTH OF MARKET STREET. 

5. Torresdale Filter Station 68 

6. House of Correction Wharf 68 

7. Tacony Steel Co. Pier 68 

8. Keystone Yacht Club Pier 69 

9. Disston's bulkhead 69 

10. Tacony & Palmyra Ferry 69 

11. Lardners Point Wharf 70 

12. Philadelphia Electric Co. Pier 70 

13. Hagan's Pier 70 

14. Fitler Pier 71 

15. Frankford Arsenal bulkhead 71 

16. Chas. Lennig & Co. (Inc.) Wharf bulkhead 71 

17. Bridesburg Recreation Pier 72 

18. Hitner's Pier , 72 

19. Venango Street Pier 72 

20. Tioga Street Pier extension 73 

21. Tioga Street Pier 73 

22. Bulkhead, Clinton Shipbuilding & Repair Co 73 

23. Pier No. 181, north, Chas. Warner Sand Co 74 

24. Pier No. 179, north, Pearson & Ludascher Lumber Co 74 

25. Pier No. 126, north, City of Philadelphia recreation pier 74 

26. Pier J, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. . 75 

27. Pier H, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 75 

28. Pier G, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 75 

29. Pier D, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelpliia & Reading Railway Co.. 76 

30. Pier C, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 76 

31. Pier B, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 76 

32. Pier A, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 77 

33. Pier No. 1, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 77 

34. Pier No. 2, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 77 

35. Pier No. 3, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 78 

36. Pier No. 4, Port Riclimond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 78 

37. Pier No. 5, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 78 

38. Pier No. 6, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 79 

39 . Pier No . 7 , Port Richmond Terminal , Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 79 

40. Pier No. 8, Port Riclimond Tenninal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 79 

41. Pier No. 9, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 80 

42. Pier No. 10, Port Riclimond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 80 

43. Pier No. 11, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 80 

44. Pier No. 12, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co. . 81 

45. Pier No. 13, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia &, Reading Railway Co. . 81 

46. Pier No. 14, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 81 

47 . Pier No. 16, Port Richmond Tenninal , Philadelphia &. Reading Railway Co. . 82 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 365 

Refer- Per 

ence description 

No. on see page 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

48. Pier No. 18, Port Richmond Terminal, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co.. 82 

49. Pier No. 20, Port Richmond Terminal, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & 

Engine Building Co 82 

50. Wet Basin, between Pier No. 86 and Pier No. 20, Port Richmond Terminal, 

Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 83 

er No. 86, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 83 

er No. 85, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 84 

er No. 84, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 84 

er No. 83, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co" 84 

er No. 82, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 85 

er No. 81, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co. . . : . . 85 

er No. 80a, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 85 

er No. 80, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 86 

No. 79, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 86 

er No. 78, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 86 

er No. 77, north, Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co 87 

er No. 76, north, Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co 87 

er No. 75, north, Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co 87 

erNo. 72, north, Hughes & Patterson 88 

er No. 71, north, Hughes & Patterson 88 

erNo. 70, north, city of Philadelphia 88 

er No. 69, north, Wm. M. Lloyd Lumber Co 89 

erNo. 67, north, De Frain Sand Co 89 

erNo. 66, north, De Frain Sand Co 89 

er No. 65, north, Kensington Shipyard 90 

er No. 64, north, Kensington Shipyard 90 

er No. 63, north, Kensington Shipyard 90 

er No. 62, north, Kensington Shipyard 91 

erNo. 61, north, Philadelphia Electric Co 91 

ers Nos. 57 and 58, north "Penn Treaty Park," department of wharves, 

docks, and ferries 91 

76. Pier No. 56, north, Columbia Avenue Pier Co. (Inc.) 92 

77. Pier No. 55, north, American Ice Co 92 

78. Pier No. 54, north, West Jersey Sand & Supply Corporation 92 

79. Pier No. 53, north, Frank Merrihew & Sons 93 

80. Pier No. 52, north, Janney Lumber Co 93 

81. Pier No. 51, north, S. B. Vrooman Co. (Ltd.) 93 

82. Piers Nos. 49 and 50, north (combined), Pennsylvania Railroad Co 94 

83. Shackamaxon Street Ferry, Kensington & New Jersey Ferry Co 94 

84. Pier No. 48, north, Pennsylvania Sugar Co 95 

85. Pier No. 47, north, Pennsylvania Sugar Co 95 

85. Pier No. 46, north, Pennsylvania Sugar Co 95 

86. Pier No. 45, north, J. W. Paxon Co 96 

87. Pier No. 44, north, Watson, Malone & Son 96 

88. Pier No. 43, north, Philadelphia & Reading Railway 96 

88. Pier No. 42, north, Charles F. Felin & Co 97 

89. Pier No. 41, north, Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 97 

90. Pier No. 40, north, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 97 

91. Pier No. 39, north, Clayton W. Nichols 98 



51. 


Pi 


52. 


Pi 


53. 


Pi 


54. 


Pi 


55. 


Pi 


56. 


Pi 


57. 


Pi 


58. 


Pi 


59. 


Pi 


60. 


Pi 


61. 


Pi 


62. 


Pi 


63. 


Pi 


64. 


Pi 


65. 


Pi 


66. 


Pi 


67. 


Pi 


68. 


Pi 


69. 


Pi 


70. 


Pi 


71. 


Pi 


72. 


Pi 


73. 


Pi 


74. 


Pi 


75. 


Pi 



366 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Refer- For 
ence description 

No. on seepage 

map. Name of terminals. No. 

92. Pier No. 37-38, north, United States Emergency Fleet Corporation 98 

93. Pier No. 36, north, American Ice Co 98 

94. Pier No. 35^, north, American Ice Co 99 

95. Pier No. 35, north, city of Philadelphia 99 

96. Pier No. 34, north, Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 99 

97. Pier No. 32, north, Geo. W. Kugler & Sons Co 100 

98. Pier No. 31, north. Terminal Warehouse & Transfer Co 100 

99. Pier No. 30, north, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 100 

100. Pier No. 29, north, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 101 

101. Pier No. 27, north, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 101 

102. Pier No. 25, north, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 101 

103. Pier No. 24, north, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 102 

104. Pier No. 19, north, city of Philadelphia; leased to various transportation 

lines 102 

105. Viae Street Ferry, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 102 

106. Pier No. 14, north, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 103 

107. Pier No. 13, north, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 103 

108. Pier No. 12, north, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 103 

109. Pier No. 11, north, city of Philadelphia 104 

110. Pier No. 10, north, city of Philadelphia 104 

111. Pier No. 9, north. United Fruit Co •. . 104 

112. Pier No. 5, north, Wilmington Steamboat Co 105 

113. Pier No. 4, north, city of Philadelphia; leased to various transportation 

companies 105 

114. Pier No. 3, north, city of Philadelphia 105 

DELAWARE RIVER, PHILADELPHIA, SOUTH OP MARKET STREET. 

115. Pennsylvania Railroad ferries, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 106 

116. Pier No. 1, south, Porter-Gildersleeve Corp 106 

117. Pier No. 3, south, leased to different lines on yearly basis 106 

118. Pier No. 5, south, city of Philadelphia; not yet completed; not leased. . . 107 

119. Chestnut Street Ferries, Delaware River Ferry Co 107 

120. Pier No. 8, south, Philadelphia & Reading Railway 107 

121 . Pier No. 9, south, Philadelphia & Reading Railway 108 

122. Piers Nos. 10 and 11, south, Pennsylvania Railroad 108 

123. Pier No. 14, south, Pennsylvania Railroad 108 

124. Pier No. 16, south, Cunard Steamship Co 109 

125. Piers Nos. 18 and 20, south, Merchants & Miners Transportation Co 109 

126. Pier No. 22, south, Baltimore & Ohio Raiboad Co 109 

127. Pier No. 24, south. Merchants & Miners Transportation Co 110 

128. South Street Ferries, Delaware River Ferry Co 110 

129. Gloucester Ferry, Gloucester Ferry Co 110 

130. Pier No. 28, south, Independent Pier Co Ill 

131. Pier No. 30, south. Independent Pier Co Ill 

132. Pier No. 34, south. Independent Pier Co Ill 

133. Pier No. 35, south. Independent Pier Co 112 

134. Pier No. 36, south, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 112 

135. Pier No. 38, south, Fumess, Withy & Co 112 

136. Pier No. 40, south, Societe NationaleDi Navigaziono (south side) 

J. A. McCarthy Agent (North side) 114 

137. Pier No. 46, south. Southern Steamship Co 114 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 367 

Refer- For 

ence description 

No. on see page 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

138. Pier No. 48, south, International Mercantile Marine 114 

139. Pier No. 49, south, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 116 

140. Pier No. 53, south. International Mercantile Marine 116 

141. Pier No. 55, south. International Mercantile Marine 116 

142. Pier No. 56, south, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 117 

143. Pier No. 57, south, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 117 

144. Pier No. 59, south, Franklin Sugar Refining Co 117 

145. Pier No. 60, south, Franklin Sugar Refining Co 118 

146. Pier No. 61, south, Franklin Sugar Refining Co 118 

147. Pier No. 62, south, Baltunore & Ohio Railroad Co 118 

148. Float bridge north of Pier No. 03, Baltimore & Ohio Raikoad Co 119 

149. Pier No. 63, south, Baltunore & Ohio Railroad Co 119 

150. Pier No. 64, south, Geo. B. Newton Coal Co 119 

151. Bulkhead pier No. 66, south, David France & Co 120 

152. Pier No. 67, south, W. J. McCahan Sugar Refining & Molasses Co 120 

153. Pier No. 68, south, W. J. McCahan Sugar Refining & Molasses Co 120 

154. Pier No. 69, south, W. J. McCahan Sugar Refining & Molasses Co 121 

155. Pier No. 70, south, Baugh & Sons Co 121 

156. Pier No. 72, south, Baugh & Sons Co 121 

157. Pier No. 72i, south (not official number), David Berg Industrial Alcohol Co. 122 

158. Pier No. 73, south, Philadelphia Ship Repair Co 122 

159. Pier No. 74, south, Philadelphia Ship Repair Co 122 

160. Pier No. 78, south, north side, Luckenbach Steamship Co., south side, 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co 123 

161 . Pier No. 80, south, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co 123 

162. Pier No. 81, south, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co 123 

163. Pier No. 82, south, city of Philadelphia (not completed) 124 

164. Salt Pier No. 84, south, city of Philadelphia (not completed) 124 

165. Pier No 92, south, Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co 124 

166. Pier No. 93, south, Pennsylvania Mfg. Co 125 

167. Pier No. 94, south, Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co 125 

168. Pier No. 96, south, United States Shipping Board 125 

169. Pier No. 98, south. United States Shipping Board 126 

170. Pier No. 100, south. United States Shipping Board 126 

171. Pier No. 103, south, Union Fertilizer Co 126 

172. Pier No. 104, south, Union Fertilizer Co 128 

173. Pier No. 105, south, Union Fertilizer Co 128 

174. Pier No. 106, south (Pier No. 1, Greenwich), Eastern Coal Dock Co 128 

175. Pier No. 107, south (Pier No. 2, Greenwich), Eastern Coal Dock Co 129 

176. Pier No. 108, south (Pier No. 3, Greenwich), Eastern Coal Dock Co 129 

177. Pier No. 109, south (Pier No. 4, Greenwich), Eastern Coal Dock Co 129 

178. Pier No. 110, south (Pier No. 5, Greenwich), Pennsylvania Railrodd Co. 

(not in use) 130 

179. Pier No. Ill, south (Pier No. 6, Greenwich), Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 

(not in use) 130 

180. Point House Pier, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 130 



368 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

delaware river, philadelphia, south of market street (united states navy 

yard). 

Refer- For 
ence description 
No. on seepage 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

181. Small boat landing 131 

182. Pier No. 7, navy yard 131 

183. Pier No. 1, navy yard 131 

184. Pier No. 2, navy yard 132 

185. Pier No. 3, navy yard 132 

186. Pier No. 8, navy yard 132 

187. Pier No. 4, navy yard 133 

188. Pier No. 5, navy yard 133 

189. Pier No. 6, navy yard 133 

190. Pier D, navy yard reserve basin 134 

191. Pier C, navy yard reserve basin 134 

192. Pier B, navy yard reserve basin 134 

193. Pier A, navy yard reserve basin 135 

194. Second Street, bulkhead 135 

195. Preble Avenue, bulkhead 135 

196. Broad Street, bulkhead 136 

197. Davis Avenue, bulkhead 136 

DELAWARE RIVER, FORT MIFFLIN, PA. 

198. Pier No. 1, Fort Mifflin, naval magazines 137 

199. Pier No. 2, Fort Mifflin, naval magazines 137 

200. Pier No. 2, U. S. Engineers 138 

201. Pier No. 1, U. S. Engineers 138 

DELAWARE RIVER, HOG ISLAND, PA. 

202. Pier No. 50, Hog Island 139 

203. Pier No. 40, Hog Island 139 

204. Pier No. 30, Hog Island 139 

205. Pier No. 20, Hog Island 140 

206. Pier No. 10, Hog Island 140 

207. Pier M, Hog Island 140 

208. Pier A, Hog Island 141 

209. PierB, Hog Island 141 

210. Pier C, Hog Island 141 

211. Pier D, Hog Island 142 

212. Pier E, Hog Island 142 

213. Pier F, Hog Island 143 

214. Pier G, Hog Island 143 

DELAWARE RIVER, DEEP WATER POINT, N. J. 

300. DuPont Main Pier 144 

301. DuPont Pier No. 2 144 

302. DuPont Pier No. 1 144 

DELAWARE RIVER, PENNS GROVE, N. J. 

303. DuPont Pier 145 

304. Wilson line Pier 145 

305. Harmony Street Pier 146 

306. Penns Grove Navigation Co 146 

307. Ordnance Department Pier 146 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 369 

DELAWARE RIVER, BELOW GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

Refer- For 

ence description 

No. on seepage 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

308. Car float slip, E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co 147 

309. Powder Pier, E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co 148 

310. DuPont Wharf No. 2 148 

311 DuPont Wharf No. 1 149 

312. Vacuum Oil Co., bulkhead 149 

313. Lincoln Park Pier, Rogers estate 149 

314. Lincoln Ferry Pier, Rogers estate 150 

315. Billingsport Pier, Charles Wetherby 150 

316. Sanitarium Wharf, Dr. Harry E. Wiley, M. D 150 

DELAWARE RIVER, GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

317. Pusey & Jones Pier No. 3 151 

318. Pusey & Jones Pier No. 2 151 

319. Pusey & Jones Pier No. 1 152 

320. South Pier, Gloucester Ferry Co 152 

321. Gloucester ferry slip 152 

322. Dickensheets Pier 153 

323. Immigration Pier, Bureau of Immigration 153 

324. Argo mils Pier 153 

325. City Pier No. 5, dty of Gloucester 154 

326. Chew Pier, United States Naval Aircraft Department 154 

327 . Welsbach Piers Nos. 2 and 3 154 

328. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 8, south yard 155 

329. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 7, south yard 155 

DELAWARE RIVER, CAMDEN, N. .7. 

330. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 6, north yard 156 

331. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 5, north yard 156 

332. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 4, north yard 157 

333. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 3, north yard 157 

334. New York Sliipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 2, north yard 157 

335. New York Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 1 158 

336. Philadelphia & Reading yard 158 

337. Philadelphia & Reading car ferry 158 

338. McAndrews & Forbes Pier 159 

339. Armstrong Cork Co 159 

340. Southwark Pier 159 

341. Philadelphia & Reading wharf 160 

342. Philadelphia & Reading wharf 160 

343. Coles Wharf 160 

344. Atlantic City R. R. passenger station 161 

345. Kaighn Avenue Ferry, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co 161 

346. Delaware River Discharging Co 161 

347. Public Service Gas Co 162 

348. Public Service Gas Co. main wharf 162 

349. Camden Coke Ker, Public Service Gas Co 162 

350. Spruce Street Pier, city of Camden, harbor commission 163 

351. American Dredging Co. main pier 163 

352. American Dredging Co. pier 163 

353. Ballast wharf, American Dredging Co 164 



370 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Refer- For 

ence description 

No. on seepage 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

354. Brennemans Pier 164 

355. Clinton Street Pier, city of Camden 164 

356. Armstrong & Latta bulkhead 165 

357. Pennsylvania R. R. car ferry 165 

358. Pennsylvania R. R. storage yard 165 

359. Car repair shop, Camden Terminal Division, West Jersey & Seashore Rail- 

road 166 

360. Bulkhead, Pier No. 3, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 166 

361. Federal Street Ferry, Pier No. 2, Philadelphia & Camden Ferry Co 166 

362. Market Street Pier No. 1, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 167 

363. Ferry slip, Pennsylvania RaUroad Co 167 

3G4 . Victor Wliarf 167 

365. Cooper Street Pier, city of Camden, harbor commission 168 

366. Campbells Wharf 168 

367. Storage yard, Philadelphia & Reading Railway 168 

368. Linden Street car ferry, Philadelphia & Reading Railway 169 

369. Coal pier, Philadelphia & Reading Railway 169 

370. David Baird Wharf 169 

371. Munger & Bennett Wharf 170 

372. Elm Street Wharf, West Jersey Paper Co 170 

373. Stockman Pier 170 

374. Vaughan's Wharf 171 

375. Vine Street Yard, Pennsylvania RaUroad Co 171 

376. Vine Street Yard, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 171 

377. Vine Street Yard, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 172 

378. Vine Street Ferry, Philadelphia and Coopers Point Ferry Co. and Kensing- 

ton & New Jersey Ferry 172 

379. Thomas Vaughn 172 

380. Delaware Shipbuilding & Repair Corp 173 

381. Quigley &Dorp 173 

382. Quigley & Dorp 173 

383. Quigley & Dorp 174 

384. Quigley & Dorp 174 

385. Quigley & Dorp 174 

386. Quigley & Dorp 175 

387. John H. Mathis 175 

388. John H. Mathis 175 

389. John H. Mathis... 176 

390. John H. Mathis 176 

391. Jersey Leather Co 176 

392. Camden Yacht Club 177 

393. Camden Shipbuilding Co 177 

394. Camden Shipbuilding Co -177 

395. Camden Shipbuilding Co 178 

396. Waterworks Pier. 178 

397. Hagen's Dock 178 

398. Noecker & Ake 179 

399. Noecker & Ake 179 

400. Noecker & Ake 179 

401. Cramer Hill ferry landing 180 

402. Tucker's yard 180 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 371 

Refer- For 
ence description 

No. on see page 

map. Names of terminals. No. 

403. Kinsey's ^Tiarf 180 

404. Kirk's Whari 181 

405. Cramer Hill Ferry 181 

406. Hatch Brick Yard BullvLead 181 

SCHUYLKILL RIVER, PHILADELPHIA. 

500. Pier No. 1, Girard Point Terminal, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 182 

501. Pier No. 2, Girard Point Terminal, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 182 

502. Pier No. 3, Girard Point Terminal, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 182 

503. Pier No. 4, Girard Point Terminal, Pennsylvania Railroad Co 183 

504. Gulf Refining Co.'s Pier 183 

505. Gulf Refining Co. 's Bulkhead (Girard Point Station.) 183 

506. Andrew Peoples Bulkhead 184 

507. Haenn's Wharf 184 

508. Atlantic Refining Co.'s Bulkhead 184 

509. U. G. I. Co.'s Station A Bulkhead 185 

510. U. G. I. Co.'s Bulkhead 185 

511. Atlantic Refining Co.'s Bulkhead 185 

512. Atlantic Refining Co. separator wharf 186 

513. Baltimore ct Ohio R. R. Co. Pier 186 

514. Philadelphia Rubber Works Pier 186 

515. The Barrett Co. 's Bulkhead 187 

516. Wilson-Martin Co. 's Bulkhead 187 

517. E. I. du Pontde Nemours Pier 187 

518. Frederick R. Geary Bulkhead 188 

519. U. S. Quartermaster Department Bulkhead : 188 

520. Philadelphia Electric Co. Bulkhead 188 

521. DeFrain Sand Co.'s Bulkhead 189 

522. Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. Bulkhead 189 

523. American Ice Co. Bulkhead 189 

524. Anderson's Bulkhead 190 

525. George B. Newton Coal Co. Bulkhead 190 

526. Standard Ice Manufacturing Co. Bulkhead 190 

527. Sun Shipbuilding Bulkhead 191 

528. George B. Newton Coal Co. Bulkhead 191 

529. Donaghy & Sons Bulkhead 191 

530. American Ice Co. Bulkhead 192 

531. Baltimore & Ohio Bulkhead 102 

532. Gomery, Schwartz Bulkhead 192 

533. Baltimore & Ohio Bulkhead 193 

534. Petterson Bulkhead 193 

535. John Lang Paper Co. 's Bulkhead 193 

536. Ford & Kendig Bulkhead 194 

537. Knickerbocker Bulkhead 194 

538. PeoplesBros. Bulkheads 194 

539. North Bulkhead 195 

540. Vare Bros. Bulkhead 195 

541. Philadelphia Electric Co.'s Bulkhead 195 

542. Fairmount Wharf 196 

550. City of Philadelphia, platform pier 196 

551. Clanceys Platform Pier 196 



372 THE POET OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Refer- For 

nToh Names of terminals. d-ersP«on 

map. No. 

552. Atlantic; Refining Co. Bulkhead 197 

553. Barber Asphalt Co. Bulkhead 197 

554. Henry Holts Bulkliead 197 

555. Standard Pipe & Fittings Co.'s Bulkhead 198 

556. Pennsylvania R. R. Bulkhead 198 

557. Pennsylvania R. R. Bulkhead 199 

558. Geo. B. Newton Coal Co., Bulkhead 199 

559. Fairlamb Bulkhead 199 

560. Walnut Street Bulkhead 200 

561. Wetherill Bros. Bulkhead 200 

562. Philadelphia Union Stock Yards Bulkhead 201 

563. Union Paving Co. Bulkhead 201 

564. Morris, Wheeler Co. Bulkhead 201 

565. Pintsch Co. Bulkhead 202 

566. Geo. B. Newton Coal Co. Bulkhead 202 

567. Yellow Pine Co. 's Bulkhead 202 

568. John Maxwell's Sons Bulkhead 203 

569. University of Pennsylvania Pier 203 

570. Geo. W. Smith & Co. (Inc.) Pier 203 

571. City Reduction Plant Bulkhead 204 

572. Gulf Refining Co. 's Bulkhead 204 

573. Atlantic Refining Co. 's ballast wharf 204 

574. Abandoned pier 205 

575. Philadelphia Railway Co. 's pier 205 

576. City of Philadelphia bulkhead 205 

DELAWARE RIVER, ESSINGTON, PA 

600. Henry A. Blatz Pier 206 

601. Rasmussen's Pier 206 

602. Aviation School Pier 206 

603. Yacht Repair & Storage Co. Pier 207 

604 . Walbers Pier 207 

605. Corinthian Yacht Club, Upper Pier 207 

606. Corinthian Yacht Club, Lower Pier 208 

607. Philadelphia Yacht Club 208 

DELAWARE RIVER, EDDYSTONE, PA 

608. Baldwin Locomotive Works 209 

609. Eddystone Manufacturing Co... 209 

DELAWARE RIVER, CHESTER, PA. 

610. Sun Shipbuilding Co. Shipways, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 210 

611. Sun Shipbuilding Co. Pier No. 1 210 

612. Sun Shipbuilding Co. Pier No. 2 210 

613. Sun Shipbuilding Co. Pier No. 3 211 

614. Sun Shipbuilding Co. Pier No. 3a 211 

615. Sun Shipbuilding Co. Pier No. 4 211 

616. Harbison- Walker Pier 212 

617. Alpha Boat Club Pier 212 

618. Chester Paper Co. Pier 212 



THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 373 

Sefer- For 

nToh Names Of terminals. d|fript^on 

map. No. 

619. Chester Paper Co. Pier 213 

620. City Pier, Market Street 213 

621. Chester Sliipping Co. Pier 213 

622. Consumers Ice Pier. Bulldbead 214 

623. Consumers Ice & Coal Co. Pier 214 

624. City of Chester 214 

625. Pennsylvania Seaboard Steel Corp. 's Bulkhead 215 

626. New Chester Water Co. Pier— Shipways 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 are located 

between New Water Co. Pier and Pier No. 1 215 

627. Merchant Shipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 1 — Shipways 8 and 9 are located 

between No. 1 and bulkheads 215 

628. Merchant Shipbuilding Corp. Bulkhead 216 

629. Merchant Sliipbuilding Corp. Pier No. 2 216 

630. Philadelphia Quartz Co 216 

631. American Dyewood Co. Pier 217 

632. American Dyewood Co. Bulkhead 217 

633. Bulkhead, city of Chester 217 

634. Bulkhead, Morton-Crosby Sand Co 218 

635. Boat Club Wharf 218 

636. Rubber Co. Pier 218 

637. Federal Steel Foundry Co. Pier 219 

638. Iving's Pier 219 

639. Plaster Mill Wharf 219 

640. American Locomotive Co. Pier 220 

641. Waterside Station 220 

642. Waterside Station 220 

643. Delaware River Steel Co. Pier 221 

644. Chester Construction Co. Pier 221 

645. Crew Levick Oil Co. Pier 221 

646. Standard Oil Co. Pier 222 

647. Union Petroleum Co. Pier 222 

DELAWARE RIVER, MARCUS HOOK, PA 

648. Bush Line Pier 223 

649. Engineer Department Pier 223 

650. Sun Oil Co. Pier 223 

651. Sun Oil Co. Pier 224 

652. Pure Oil Co 224 

653. Quarantine Station, United States Public Health Service 224 

DELAWARE RIVER, CLAYMONT, DEL. 

654. Atlantic Refining Co. Pier 225 

655. General Chemical Co. Pier 225 

656. Texas Oil Co. Pier 225 

DELAWARE RIVER, BELLEVUE, DEL. 

657. Bellevue Pier, Coast & Lakes Contracting Co 226 

DELAWARE RIVER, EDGMOOR, DEL. 

658. Lighthouse Pier, North Buoy Wharf, Department of Commerce 227 

659. Lighthouse Pier, South Buoy Wharf, Department of Commerce 227 



374 THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

DELAWARE RIVER, PIGEON POINT, DEL. 

Refer- For 

cnco description 

No. on see page 

map. Names on terminals. No. 

660. Philadelphia & Reading Ry 228 

661. Philadelphia & Reading Ry 228 

CEIRISTIANA RIVER, WILMINGTON, DEL. 

700. Municipal Terminal 229 

701. Lobdell Works 229 

702. Pyrites Co. ( Ltd . ) 229 

703. Wilmington Sugar Refinery 230 

704. Atlantic Refining Co 230 

705. DuPonts Wii&ri ....• 230 

706. Ilearn Oil Co 231 

707. Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co 231 

708. U. S. Engineers 231 

709. W. A. Jackson Lumber Co 232 

710. Wilmington Sash & Door Co 232 

711. Chas. Warner 232 

712. I^J•ebsPier 233 

713. Jessup & Moore, Delaware Mills 234 

714. Harlan Plant Bulkhead 234 

715. S. G. Simmons & Co 235 

716. Wilmington Provision Co 235 

717. Amalgamated Leather Co. Blumenthals Wharf 235 

718. Shipley Street Bulkhead 236 

719. Warners Pier 236 

720. King Street Bulkhead 236 

721. Bush Line Pier 237 

722. Pusoy & Jones Bulkhead 237 

723. Tliird Street Wharf, city of Wilmington, harlwr commission 237 

724. Wilson Line Bulkhead 238 

725. Wilson Line Bulkhead 238 

726. Jackson & Sharp Bulkhead 238 

727. Pure Oil Co. Her 239 

BRANDYWINE CREEK, WILMINGTON, DEL. 

728. Jones Pier 240 

729. Delaware Dredging Co 240 

730. nilles and Jones Bulkhead 241 

731. Hamilton Ck)al Co. Pier 241 

o 



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Hant, U. S, Army, Washington Barracks. D.C. 4824-3 



WAR DdFARTMEHT 




COUPS nf ENSINEEKS. U S - 




LEGEND 



S BUNKER OIL ! 
^ SH,P KEPA.. 




BOARD OF ENGINEERS 
FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS 

PORT FACILITIES ALONG THE DELAWARE 

RIVER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

TO WILMINGTON. DEL. 



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